Discovery that the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor play
a significant biological role in tissues outside of the hematopoietic system
has fueled significant interest in EPO as a novel cytoprotective agent in
both neuronal and vascular systems. Erythropoietin is now considered to have
applicability in a variety of disorders that include cerebral ischemia, myocardial
infarction, and chronic congestive heart failure. Erythropoietin modulates
a broad array of cellular processes that include progenitor stem cell development,
cellular integrity, and angiogenesis. As a result, cellular protection by
EPO is robust and EPO inhibits the apoptotic mechanisms of injury, including
the preservation of cellular membrane asymmetry to prevent inflammation. As
the investigation into clinical applications for EPO that maximize efficacy
and minimize toxicity progresses, a deeper appreciation for the novel roles
that EPO plays in the brain and heart and throughout the entire body should
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Erythropoietin (EPO) and the EPO receptor (EPOR) prevent apoptosis and
cellular inflammation through a series of pathways that originate with the
binding of EPO to the EPOR to activate Janus-tyrosine kinase 2 (Jak2), phosphoinositide
3 kinase (PI 3-K), and protein kinase B (Akt). The signal transducer and activator
or transcription (STAT) proteins are direct substrates of Jak2. Activation
of the specific gene product STAT5 can regulate EPO mediated cell proliferation
and protect against apoptosis. Downstream from activation of Jak2 and Akt,
EPO modulates phosphorylation of the fork head family member FOXO3a, glycogen
synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).
Hypoxia increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) resulting
in the direct enhancement of EPO expression and a hypoxic-driven increase
in EPOR expression. Erythropoietin maintains cellular integrity and prevents
apoptosis through a number of pathways, such as those involving Bcl-xL (for the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential), the modulation
of apoptosis protease activating factor (Apaf)-1, the release of cytochrome
C, and the activation of caspases 1, 3, and 9. Erythropoietin also modulates
cellular inflammation by inhibiting cellular phosphatidylserine membrane exposure
and the subsequent targeting of cells for phagocytosis.
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 309
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.