Author Contributions: Dr Shorr had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analyses.
Study concept and design: Shorr, Cersovsky,
Shanks, Smoak, Carr, Petruccelli.
Acquisition of data: Shorr, Cersovsky, Scoville,
Shanks, Ockenhouse, Smoak, Carr.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Shorr,
Scoville, Cersovsky, Shanks, Ockenhouse, Smoak, Carr, Petruccelli.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shorr, Cersovsky,
Shanks, Smoak, Carr.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Shorr, Scoville, Cersovsky, Ockenhouse, Smoak,
Statistical analysis: Shorr, Cersovsky, Shanks,
Obtained funding: Petruccelli.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Cersovsky, Ockenhouse, Smoak, Carr, Petruccelli.
Study supervision: Cersovsky, Smoak, Petruccelli.
Investigating physicians in Iraq: Ockenhouse,
Funding/Support: The US Army Office of the
Surgeon General (OTSG) sponsored the study and provided the personnel dedicated
to this study.
Role of the Sponsor: The OTSG authorized the
submission of the manuscript but was not involved in the design, conduct,
data management, analysis, or manuscript preparation.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are
not to be construed as official or as reflecting the policies of the Department
of the Army or the US Department of Defense.
Acknowledgment: We thank the many people who
collaborated in and contributed to this investigation, including those working
at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Armed Forces Institute
of Pathology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Medical Research
Institute of Infectious Diseases, US Department of Agriculture, US Food and
Drug Administration, and Northwestern University Medical School. In particular
we thank Paul Greenberger, MD, Dollene Hemmerlein, BS, Matt McAtee, BS, Stephen
Redd, MD, MPH, and Eric Shuping, MD, MPH. We also acknowledge the important
efforts of the many medics, nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals
who cared for, and continue to care for, US military personnel who are currently