Author Contributions: Dr Weiss had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Weiss, Skurnick,
Goldsmith, Santoro, Park.
Acquisition of data: Weiss, Santoro.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Weiss,
Skurnick, Goldsmith, Santoro, Park.
Drafting of the manuscript: Weiss, Skurnick,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Weiss, Skurnick, Goldsmith, Santoro, Park.
Statistical analysis: Skurnick.
Obtained funding: Weiss, Skurnick, Santoro.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Weiss, Goldsmith, Santoro, Park.
Study supervision: Weiss, Santoro.
SWAN Clinical Centers: University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor: MaryFran Sowers, PI (U01 NR04061); Massachusetts General Hospital,
Boston: Robert Neer, PI 1995-1999, Joel Finkelstein, PI 1999- present (U01
AG012531); Rush University, Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Medical Center,
Chicago, Ill: Lynda Powell, PI (U01 AG012505); University of California, Davis/Kaiser:
Ellen Gold, PI (U01 AG012554); University of California, Los Angeles: Gail
Greendale, PI (U01 AG012539); University of Medicine and Dentistry/New Jersey
Medical School, Newark: Gerson Weiss, PI 1995-2004, Nanette Santoro, PI, 2004-present
(U01 AG012535); and the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa: Karen Matthews,
PI (U01 AG012546).
NIH Program Office: National Institute on Aging,
Bethesda, Md: Sherry Sherman, 1994-present, Marcia Ory, 1994-2001; National
Institute of Nursing Research, Bethesda, Md: Janice Phillips, 2002-present,
Carole Hudgings, 1997-2002.
Central Laboratory: University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor: Rees Midgley, PI 1995-2000, Daniel McConnell, 2000-present (U01
AG012495, Central Ligand Assay Satellite Services).
Coordinating Centers: University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, Pa: Kim Sutton-Tyrrell, PI (U01 AG012546) 2001-present and New
England Research Institutes, Watertown, Mass: Sonja McKinlay, PI (U01 AG012553),
Steering Committee: Chris Gallagher, Chair,
1995-1997; Jenny Kelsey, Chair, 1997-2002; Susan Johnson, Chair, 2002- present.
Funding/Support: The Study of Women’s
Health Across the Nation (SWAN) was funded by the National Institute on Aging.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute
on Aging funded the SWAN study. The current study used data generated by the
SWAN Daily Hormone Study (DHS). The DHS was designed and approved by the SWAN
Steering Committee. The design and conduct of the current study were a product
of the authors and the samples were collected according to the SWAN DHS protocol
and occurred at all 7 clinical sites. Data management was performed by the
SWAN Coordinating Center. Analysis and interpretation of the data were accomplished
by the authors. Preparation of the manuscript was performed by the authors.
The SWAN Presentation and Publication Committee reviewed and approved the
concept, study plan, and manuscript draft for consistency with the SWAN study
and appropriateness of the current work in accordance with SWAN policy.
Acknowledgment: We thank the study staff at
each site and all the women who participated in SWAN.