Financial Disclosures: Dr Resneck owns stock
in several pharmaceutical companies (none of which has products mentioned
in the study herein); has received educational grants from health care–related
manufacturers Connetics and the Galderma Foundation, training and research
grants from a nonprofit foundation (The Dermatology Foundation), and a research
grant from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF); has received
honoraria from Connetics; has consulted for the Gerson Lehman group; has been
an advisor to Connetics and Novartis; has received a training grant from the
Health Resources and Services Administration; and has consulted in liability
cases with skin involvement. Dr Van Beek has conducted research on treatment
of psoriasis for Genentech and Fujisawa; was a consultant for IQ Solutions,
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
contract 04-1, Core Measure of the Burden of Skin Disease; and has received grants or funding from the F32 Herzog Award, National
Research Service Award (Public Health Service) regarding nevi and melanoma,
from NIAMS, National Institutes of Health (NIH)—National Cancer Institute
(R03 CA099520-01A1) regarding tanning bed use in University of Iowa students,
from the American Cancer Society regarding cumulative sun exposure and melanoma,
and from the NIH (K12 Mentored Clinical Research Award) regarding health-related
quality of life in inflammatory skin disease; and has served as an advisor/consultant
receiving honoraria from Amgen and Genentech (neither of which has products
mentioned in the study herein). Dr LeBoit owns stock in several pharmaceutical
companies (none of which has products mentioned in the study herein), has
received honoraria from lectures and publishers (but none from pharmaceutical
companies), has given expert medical testimony (but not related to the study
herein or to pharmaceutical companies or products), and has received honoraria
from book publishers (but unrelated to pharmaceutical companies or products).
Dr Maurer was a consultant for Abbott Laboratories for omnicef, Celgene for
thalidomide, and Vaxgen for smallpox vaccine; has received honoraria/lectureships
from Contemporary Forums, Symposia Medicus, and Fujiyama; had an advisory
position as a dermatology consultant for smallpox vaccine and served on a
drug safety monitoring board and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices;
and has received grants from the AIDS Clinical Research Center, UCSF, for
research on the effects of HAART therapy on HIV skin disease and from UCSF
for the study herein. Dr Berger has had prior or current pharmaceutical company
support as a consultant/advisor to Gilead Sciences, Novartis, and Doak Dermatologics,
and was on the speakers bureau for Gilead Sciences, Novartis, Dermik, and
3M. Dr Machtinger has received an unrestricted educational grant from Ortho
Biotech, honoraria from GlaxoSmithKline and Savient, was a consultant for
GlaxoSmithKline, and served on the advisory board of GlaxoSmithKline and Abbott.
Author Contributions: Dr Resneck had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analyses.
Study concept and design: Resneck, Furmanski,
Oyugi, Berger, Machtinger.
Acquisition of data: Resneck, Van Beek, Furmanski,
Oyugi, Katabira, Kambugu.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Resneck,
Furmanski, LeBoit, Maurer, Berger, Pletcher, Machtinger.
Drafting of the manuscript: Resneck, Van Beek,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Resneck, Van Beek, Furmanski, Oyugi, LeBoit,
Katabira, Kambugu, Maurer, Berger, Pletcher, Machtinger.
Statistical analysis: Resneck, Pletcher.
Obtained funding: Resneck, Machtinger.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Resneck, Van Beek, Furmanski, Oyugi, LeBoit, Kambugu, Machtinger.
Study supervision: Resneck, Oyugi, Katabira,
Maurer, Berger, Machtinger.
Funding/Support: This study was primarily supported
by a grant from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee, Office of
the Dean, University of California, San Francisco. An additional travel grant
was provided by the Donald Marion Pillsbury Fund of the Dermatology Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The organizations funding
this study had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis,
data interpretation, manuscript creation, or decision to publish.
Previous Presentation: These data have not
been published elsewhere. Preliminary data were presented as an oral abstract
at the 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Februrary
8-11, 2004; San Francisco, Calif.