Author Contributions: Dr Ludwig had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Pereira, Swain, Ludwig.
Acquisition of data: Pereira, Swain, Goldfine,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Pereira,
Swain, Goldfine, Rifai, Ludwig.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pereira, Swain,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Pereira, Swain, Goldfine, Rifai, Ludwig.
Statistical analysis: Pereira.
Obtained funding: Pereira, Ludwig.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Pereira, Swain, Rifai.
Study supervision: Pereira, Swain, Ludwig.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by
grant R01 DK59240 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Kidney Diseases (Dr Ludwig), grants MO1 RR02635 and M01 RR02172 from the National
Institutes of Health (to the General Clinical Research Center at Brigham and
Women’s Hospital, and Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, respectively),
and grants from General Mills Corporation (Dr Pereira) and Charles H. Hood
Foundation (Dr Ludwig).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations
did not participate in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection,
analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or
approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Ashley Coyne, MS,
RD, and Eileen Hamilton, DTR, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston,
Mass, for expert technical assistance.