0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Contribution |

Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Treated With Thrombolytic Therapy FREE

Peter U. Heuschmann, MD, MPH; Peter L. Kolominsky-Rabas, MD; Joachim Roether, MD; Bjoern Misselwitz, MPH; Klaus Lowitzsch, MD; Jan Heidrich, MD; Peter Hermanek, MD; Carsten Leffmann, MD; Matthias Sitzer, MD; Marcel Biegler, MD; Hans-Joachim Buecker-Nott, MD; Klaus Berger, MD, MPH; for the German Stroke Registers Study Group
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster (Drs Heuschmann, Heidrich, and Berger), and Department of Quality Assurance, Westphalian Board of Physicians (Dr Buecker-Nott), Muenster, Germany; Unit for Stroke Research and Public Health Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany (Dr Kolominsky-Rabas); Department of Neurology, University of Hamburg Eppendorf (Dr Roether), and Coordination Centre for Quality-Management Projects at the Hamburg Hospital Federation (Dr Leffmann), Hamburg, Germany; Institute of Quality Assurance Hesse, Eschborn, Germany (Mr Misselwitz);Stroke Register Rhineland-Palatine/SQMed (Dr Lowitzsch) and Institute of Quality Assurance Rhineland-Palatine/SQMed (Dr Biegler), Mainz, Germany; Bavarian Permanent Working Party for Quality Assurance, Munich, Germany (Dr Hermanek); and Department of Neurology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany (Dr Sitzer).

More Author Information
JAMA. 2004;292(15):1831-1838. doi:10.1001/jama.292.15.1831.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Context Data are limited regarding the risks and benefits of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke outside of clinical trials.

Objective To investigate predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within a pooled analysis of large German stroke registers.

Design and Setting Prospective, observational cohort study conducted at 225 community and academic hospitals throughout Germany cooperating within the German Stroke Registers Study Group.

Patients A total of 1658 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to study hospitals between 2000 and 2002 and were treated with tPA.

Main Outcome Measure In-hospital mortality.

Results One hundred sixty-six patients (10%) who received tPA died during hospitalization, with 67.5% of these deaths occurring within 7 days. Factors predicting in-hospital death after tPA use were older age (for each 10-year increment in age, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.9) and altered level of consciousness (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.4-4.7). The overall rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 7.1% and increased with age. One or more serious complications was observed in 27.2% of all patients and in 83.9% of patients who died after tPA treatment. An inverse relation between the number of patients treated with tPA in the respective hospital and the risk of in-hospital death was observed (adjusted OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99 for each additional patient treated with tPA per year).

Conclusion In patients with ischemic stroke who are treated with tPA, disturbances of consciousness and increasing age are associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

Intravenous treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is currently the only approved treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke and is recommended in the guidelines of several national and international stroke associations.1 However, in multicenter studies, only 1.6%2 to 2.7%3 of patients with ischemic stroke treated in community hospitals and 4.1%4 to 6.3%5 treated in academic hospitals or specialized stroke centers received this treatment. One major cause for the low treatment rates is that a large proportion of patients are admitted more than 3 hours after symptom onset,6 the time window for which application of tPA treatment is currently approved. But even among patients admitted within 3 hours after stroke onset, treatment rates are only moderate, ranging from 10.4%7 to 18.8%.3 In addition to a number of contraindications clearly listed in the dru approval, uncertainties about selection criteria for patients who will not benefit from thrombolysis might contribute to the low rates of stroke patients treated with tPA in routine care.8 Clarification of clinical factors associated with early death in patients treated with tPA can help identify subgroups of patients with increased risks and thereby allow clinicians to give special attention to patients who are at high risk of death after tPA treatment.

The aim of our study was to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with ischemic stroke treated with tPA outside of clinical trials.

Data were assessed within the German Stroke Registers Study Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Schlaganfall Register [ADSR]). The ADSR is a network of regional hospital-based stroke registers that monitors quality of stroke care in Germany.9 The registers include academic and community hospitals as well as departments of neurology, internal medicine, and geriatric medicine. In the present analyses, data from the stroke registers in Bavaria, Hamburg,10 Hesse,11 Rhineland-Palatinate, and Westphalia12 were included. In total, 225 hospitals participated between 2000 and 2002 in the ADSR network, representing about 10% of all 2240 German acute care hospitals.13

All registers applied a common set of variables for all stroke patients.9 Information gathered for each patient included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, neurological deficits, complications, diagnostic procedures, admission procedures, and treatment strategies during the in-hospital period. Data collection in the treating hospitals was standardized and each hospital sent the documented forms to the coordinating center of the regional stroke register. At the coordinating center, all data were checked for plausibility and completeness and a regular external evaluation of quality of stroke care was performed. Each regional stroke register sent the complete data set once per year to the data pooling center of the ADSR at the University of Muenster. Ischemic stroke patients admitted to any of the hospitals cooperating within the ADSR network between January, 1 2000, and December 31, 2002, were included.

The following definitions were used: Age was categorized into younger than 55 years, 55 to 64 years, 65 to 74 years, and 75 years or older; no further age categorization was done because the number of patients aged 85 years or older treated with tPA was too small. Diabetes mellitus was defined as elevated fasting blood glucose level, patient self-report of diabetes, or use of antidiabetic drugs. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher, diastolic blood pressure of 95 mm Hg or higher, or patient self-report of treated hypertension. Previous stroke was a neurological deficit more than 24 hours prior to current event. Atrial fibrillation was documented by electrocardiogram. Neurological deficits of stroke included motor deficits (weakness or paresis), speech disturbances (aphasia, dysarthria), and disturbances of level of consciousness (semiconscious, eg, not fully rousable; comatose, eg, either response to pain only or no response at all).

Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) was defined as clinically relevant bleeding (eg, deterioration of symptoms) and verification of ICH by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Increased intracranial pressure was defined by evidence of symptomatic increased intracranial pressure; eg, by edema, mass effect, or brain shift syndrome in CT or MRI scan, with clinical findings. Recurrent stroke was a new neurological deficit more than 24 hours after the current event. Pulmonary embolism was defined by clinical and/or diagnostic findings. Epileptic seizure was a clinical diagnosis of focal seizure, general seizure, or both in nonepileptic patients. Pneumonia was defined by clinical and/or diagnostic findings.

Stroke was defined according to World Health Organization criteria.14 The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was confirmed by CT or MRI scan. The experience of the individual hospital in tPA use was defined as number of patients treated with tPA per hospital.7 Given the fact that not all hospitals participated during the entire 3-year study period, the mean number of patients treated with tPA per hospital per year was defined as the total number of patients receiving tPA divided by number of calendar years under observation for which the respective hospital provided data and administered tPA. The effect of the number of thrombolytic therapies per hospital per year on early outcome was assessed as a continuous and as a discrete variable. As a discrete variable, the mean number of tPA administrations per hospital per year was classified into categories of 5 per year, up to more than 20. The lower cutoff of 5 or fewer tPA administrations per hospital per year was used in previous studies to classify hospital experience in tPA use.7,15 No major changes were observed between 6 to 10 and 11 to 15 tPA administrations and between 16 to 20 and more than 20 tPA administrations. Thus, mean number of patients receiving thrombolytic therapy per hospital was categorized into 1 to 5, 6 to 15, and more than 15 thrombolytic therapies per hospital per year.

Statistical Analyses

The t test was used to test differences in continuous variables and the χ2 test was used for differences in proportions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the probability of death during hospitalization in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy. In multivariate analyses, the influence of age, sex, comorbidities, and neurological deficits on risk of early death was investigated. Possible interactions between age, sex, comorbidities, and neurological deficits were controlled by adding terms of interaction to the regression model. Statistical significance of the resulting coefficients was tested using the likelihood ratio test. Significant terms of interaction were revealed between disturbances of consciousness and age groups (χ23=7.869; P = .048). Therefore, the effect of age on in-hospital mortality after thrombolytic therapy was also reported separately for disturbances of consciousness. Variables in multivariate analyses were eliminated using backward-elimination procedure. Because we recently demonstrated that risk of in-hospital death after thrombolytic therapy is increased in hospitals with limited experience in its application,7 statistical analyses also controlled for the individual hospitals’ experience in tPA administration. For assessing the fit of the logistic regression model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic and c statistic were used. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit χ2 value was statistically not significant, indicating that the model seems to fit well. The c statistic of the model was 0.72, which represents the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and indicates an acceptable discrimination of the model. All tests were 2-tailed, and statistical significance was determined at an α level of.05. Statistical analyses were performed with SAS software, version 8.2 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC).

Ethics

The design of the study was approved by the ethics committee of the Westphalian Board of Physicians and the University of Muenster. Identity of individual patients was completely anonymous; thus, no specific informed consent was obtained from patients. The investigators who performed the data analyses were blinded to hospital identities. These identities were known only by the coordinating center of the respective regional stroke register.

A total of 56 998 patients with ischemic stroke were registered within the ADSR collaboration between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2002. Mean age of patients was 70.2 years; 50.5% were men. Two hundred twenty-five hospitals participated in the ADSR network. Forty-four percent of these hospitals were departments of neurology, 51% of internal medicine, and 4% of geriatric medicine. Thirty-two percent of the participating hospitals provided stroke unit services; 37% of the hospitals participated for 3 years, 34% for 2 years, and 29% for 1 year. In 48% of the hospitals, ischemic stroke patients were treated with tPA. Thrombolysis was administered more often in departments of neurology (P<.001), in hospitals providing stroke unit services (P<.001), and in facilities treating a high number of ischemic stroke patients per year (P<.001). Sixty-seven percent of the hospitals offering tPA therapy treated between 1 and 5 patients with thrombolysis per year, 33% of the hospitals treated 6 to 15 patients, and 10% treated more than 15 patients per year.

During the study period, 1796 patients were treated with tPA for acute ischemic stroke (range per hospital, 1-110). A total of 3.2% of all patients and 11.6% of patients admitted within 3 hours of stroke onset were treated with tPA. The median number of patients receiving thrombolysis per hospital per year was 4 (range per hospital per year, 1-48). One hundred thirty-eight patients were excluded from further analysis because of missing values. Because not all registers provided comparable data on symptomatic ICH for the entire study period, 409 additional patients were excluded from the assessment of the impact of complications on risk of in-hospital death. The mean age of patients treated with tPA was 64.9 years (SD, 12.2 years). Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who received thrombolytic therapy are shown in Table 1.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Characteristics of Patients With Ischemic Stroke Treated With Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)*

Overall, 10.0% of patients treated with tPA died during hospitalization. A total of 42.2% of in-hospital deaths occurred within the first 3 days and 67.5% within the first 7 days in the hospital. Percentages of patients treated with tPA who did and did not die in the hospital are shown in Table 2 according to sociodemographic and clinical factors. In univariate analyses, age, diabetes mellitus, disturbances of consciousness, and hospital expertise in tPA treatment significantly influenced proportion of in-hospital death (Table 2). After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with a disturbed level of consciousness and those in higher age groups were at increased risk of death during hospitalization (Table 2). The influence of age on risk of early death was similar if age was investigated as a continuous variable (adjusted OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9 for each 10-year increment in age).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality After tPA Treatment: Univariate and Multivariate Analyses*

Hospital expertise with use of tPA also was independently associated with probability of early death after tPA treatment. The risk of in-hospital death decreased by 3% for each additional patient treated with tPA per year (Table 2). In-hospital mortality was 13.4% in hospitals that treated fewer than 6 patients, 11.5% in hospitals treating 6 to 15 patients, and 7.1% in hospitals treating more than 15 patients with tPA per year. Risk of in-hospital mortality was lower in hospitals administering tPA 6 to 15 times and more than 15 times per year (adjusted OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2 and adjusted OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8, respectively; test for trend, P = .004) compared with those treating 1 to 5 patients.

Because of the differential impact of age on in-hospital mortality after tPA treatment in patients with and without disturbances of consciousness, multivariate analyses were stratified for this condition (Table 3). Risk of death during hospitalization increased with older age in both of these groups. The highest absolute risk of death was observed among patients aged 75 years or older with a disturbance of consciousness. However, relative probability of in-hospital death in the oldest compared with the youngest age group was particularly increased in patients without disturbances of consciousness compared with patients with this condition (Table 3).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Relationship of Age and In-Hospital Mortality After tPA Treatment, Stratified by Level of Consciousness

The frequency of serious complications after tPA use and their association with risk of in-hospital death is shown in Table 4. All assessed complications except seizures were associated with increased risk of early mortality. Symptomatic ICH and increased intracranial pressure were the strongest independent predictors of in-hospital death (Table 4). The rate of ICH after tPA use increased with age, from 4.9% in patients younger than 55 years (n = 11) to 10.3% in patients aged 75 years or older (n = 31) (test for trend, P = .02) (data not shown).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Frequency of Serious Complications After tPA Use During Acute Care Hospital Stays and Impact on Risk of In-Hospital Death*

We identified predictors of early mortality in 1658 ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA in German hospitals. Patient and hospital characteristics influenced risk of in-hospital death. The patient characteristics older age and disturbed level of consciousness were independent predictors of early mortality. Relative probability of in-hospital death was particularly increased in older patients without disturbances of consciousness. Among hospitals, the number of tPA administrations per year was independently associated with early mortality. Risk of in-hospital death after thrombolysis decreased with increasing experience of the treating hospital in tPA administration, indicating an inverse relation.

Few studies have reported outcomes after thrombolytic therapy in old and very old patients.1618 In the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial, only 42 patients older than 80 years were included; in the other clinical trials on tPA, this age group was excluded.17 Based on the limited evidence available from randomized controlled trials, the balance of risks and benefits of thrombolysis in older patients is part of an ongoing discussion.8,17 In a retrospective survey of 189 patients treated with tPA outside of clinical trials, the 30 patients older than 80 years tended to be at higher risk of death during hospitalization compared with younger patients.18 This tendency was similar in magnitude to the impact of higher age on risk of in-hospital mortality in our study (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.8-9.618 vs OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7).

However, in our study the relative increase in risk of in-hospital death with each age group was similar in magnitude in patients receiving tPA treatment compared with those not treated with tPA, although absolute proportions of death were constantly higher in tPA-treated patients. The overall rate of in-hospital death in ischemic stroke patients not treated with tPA in hospitals administering tPA was 4.6% (1939/41 777), increasing from 1.1% in patients younger than 55 years up to 7.7% in patients aged 75 years or older. Older age was an independent predictor of in-hospital death in patients not receiving tPA treatment. The OR of death for the oldest age group (≥75 years) was about 4-fold increased compared with the youngest group (<55 years) (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 3.5-6.1), adjusted for sex, neurological deficits, and comorbidities. The observational design of our study did not allow us to judge effectiveness and benefits of treatment with tPA compared with nontreatment in older age groups. This could best be done within the setting of randomized controlled trials, which should specifically address effectiveness of tPA treatment in older patients.

In our study, risk of in-hospital death after thrombolysis was independently increased for patients with a disturbed level of consciousness, which was identified as a predictor of stroke severity.19 Thus, the results from our observational study are in accordance with a recently published report of the Cochrane Stroke Group.17 In this cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of thrombolytic agents in ischemic stroke, there was a statistically nonsignificant trend toward the association of thrombolysis (all thrombolytic agents combined) with more deaths in patients with severe strokes.17 The highest absolute proportion of in-hospital deaths was found among patients older than 75 years with disturbances of consciousness. However, a significant interaction between older age and level of consciousness was observed. Relative probability of in-hospital death increased to a larger extent with age among patients without a disturbed level of consciousness compared with patients with this condition. An increased risk of death in older patients might be caused by accumulation of adverse factors with age, which independently influences outcome. One of the most important predictors for outcome is stroke severity,20 which was defined by disturbances of consciousness in our analysis.19 Factors influencing an increased risk of death in older patients might also be causative for severity of stroke in patients treated with tPA. Thus, in severe stroke patients treated with tPA, older age might not substantially increase further risk of early death.

Overall in-hospital mortality in our study was similar to the results of the NINDS trial (10% vs 11%21). However, our study demonstrated substantial variations in early death depending on the individual hospital expertise in tPA use. One possible explanation might be the fact that the number of protocol violations is lower in hospitals with high expertise in tPA use. A recently published overview based on approximately 2600 patients treated with tPA outside the setting of clinical trials provides evidence that a higher proportion of protocol violations might be associated with increased rates of death.22 This finding is also in accordance with studies on short-term treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, which demonstrated an independent association between a higher volume of patients treated per hospital and better short-term survival.23,24 Our results in stroke patients receiving thrombolytic therapy raise a question: Should tPA in routine care preferably be administered in centers experienced in its application? To avoid potential harm to their patients, hospitals with low numbers of tPA treatment per year could collaborate with experienced centers in tPA use; eg, using new approaches in networking, such as telemedicine.25

In our multicenter study, overall, 7.1% of patients treated with tPA experienced symptomatic ICH. This rate was comparable with the NINDS trial, which reported 6.4% with symptomatic ICH during the first 36 hours.16 However, the average rate of symptomatic ICH in a meta-analysis of 15 open-label studies on tPA use was slightly lower (5.2%; 95% CI, 4.3-6.0)22 compared with our findings. This difference in rates of ICH might be caused by different definitions between the studies, especially with an ICH classification of “symptomatic.” In addition, the rate of ICH in our study increased constantly with older age. This finding is in accordance with a pooled analysis of data on 1205 patients collected from centers experienced in tPA use that revealed advancing age among other causes as a factor that independently predicted the rate of symptomatic ICH.26

Our study has several strengths and limitations. Information in our study was collected in a uniform, prospective way in 225 community hospitals across Germany. Observing risks of thrombolytic therapy in community settings may provide more realistic information about the effectiveness of this procedure in real clinical practice compared with clinical trials.27 Because of the large number of patients, subgroup analyses among patients treated with tPA could be performed with sufficient power. We were unable to assess potential violations of existing thrombolysis protocols since time interval from stroke onset to hospitalization was the only available protocol information, and other important data such as tPA dosage, time to tPA administration, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission were not documented. In addition, no information was available about long-term outcome of patients after discharge from the hospital since we investigated predictors for early mortality during hospitalization. Predictors for long-term mortality after tPA use in stroke patients might differ from factors influencing risk of in-hospital death. Furthermore, our observational study did not aim to show a benefit of tPA treatment vs nontreatment, which can only be done within the settings of randomized controlled trials. We used the number of tPA applications per year as an indicator for the expertise of an individual hospital in tPA use. However, we cannot exclude that the inverse association between number of tPA administrations and risk of in-hospital death might be caused by other factors within the hospitals that improve outcome; eg, experience of treating physician or number of physicians per hospital. Our definition of ICH was based on clinical findings and verification of ICH on brain imaging. Thus, we might have missed ICH if no brain imaging was performed after clinical deterioration in a patient.

In this study, 10% of patients who received tPA for acute ischemic stroke died during hospitalization, and the risk of death increased with age and with disturbances of consciousness and was inversely associated with increasing experience of the treating hospital in tPA administration. Thus, clinicians should give special attention to patients with disturbances of consciousness and older age for reducing rates of in-hospital mortality after tPA treatment.

Corresponding Author: Peter U. Heuschmann, MD, MPH, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, Domagkstrasse 3, 48149 Muenster, Germany (heuschma@uni-muenster.de).

Author Contributions: Dr Heuschmann had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Heuschmann, Kolominsky-Rabas, Lowitzsch, Leffmann, Sitzer, Berger.

Acquisition of data: Roether, Misselwitz, Hermanek, Leffmann, Sitzer, Biegler, Buecker-Nott, Berger.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Heuschmann, Heidrich, Hermanek, Sitzer, Berger.

Drafting of the manuscript: Heuschmann.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kolominsky-Rabas, Roether, Misselwitz, Lowitzsch, Heidrich, Hermanek, Leffmann, Sitzer, Biegler, Buecker-Nott, Berger.

Statistical analysis: Heuschmann, Berger.

Obtained funding: Heuschmann, Kolominsky-Rabas, Leffmann.

Administrative, technical, or material support:Kolominsky-Rabas, Roether, Heidrich, Hermanek, Leffmann, Biegler, Buecker-Nott, Berger.

Study supervision: Heuschmann, Misselwitz, Lowitzsch, Hermanek, Sitzer, Buecker-Nott.

German Stroke Registers Study Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Schlaganfall Register [ADSR]):Stroke Register Bavaria: Amberg: Neurologische Abteilung des Klinikums St Marien; Aschaffenburg: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Augsburg: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Bad Aibling: Neurologische Klinik Bad Aibling GmbH; Bad Kissingen: Medizinische Klinik des St Elisabeth-Krankenhauses; Bad Neustadt: Neurologische Klinik GmbH; Bad Toelz: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Asklepios Stadtklinik; Bad Reichenhall: Innere Abteilung des Staedtischen Krankenhauses; Bad Windsheim: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Klinik Bad Windsheim; Bayreuth: Neurologische Klinik des Krankenhauses Hohe Warte; Burglengenfeld: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Cham: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Dachau: Abteilung für Neurologie des Klinikums; Donauwoerth: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Donau Ries Klinik; Ebersberg: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Kreisklinik; Eggenfelden: Abteilung fuer Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Erlangen: Neurologische Klinik der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg; Freising: Abteilung für Anaesthesie u. operative Intensivmedizin des Klinikums; Guenzburg: Klinik fuer Neurologie des Bezirkskrankenhauses; Haar: Neurologische Klinik des Bezirkskrankenhauses; Hausham: Geriatrie des Krankenhauses Agatharied; Hoechstadt an der Aisch: Abteilung fuer Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses St Anna; Ingolstadt: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Kelheim: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Kempten: Abteilung für Innere Medizin II des Klinikums; Lindenberg: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Dr Otto-Gessler-Krankenhaus; Lohr am Main: Krankenhaus des Bezirkes Unterfranken; Muehldorf: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Muenchen: Neurologische Klinik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Neurologische Klinik der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung für Neurologie des Staedtischen Krankenhauses Bogenhausen, Abteilung für Neurologie des Staedtischen Krankenhauses Harlaching; Murnau: Abteilung fuer Innere Medizin II des Klinikums Garmisch-Partenkirchen; Noerdlingen: Abteilung für innere Medizin der Vereinigten Wohltaetigkeitsstiftungen Noerdlingen; Nuernberg: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums, Medizinische Klinik 4 des Klinikums; Neuendettelsau: Innere Abteilung des Diakoniewerkes Neuendettelsau; Oberaudorf: Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Krankenhauses; Ochsenfurt: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Main-Klinik; Oettingen: Abteilung für Innere Medizin der Donau Ries Klinik; Passau: I. Medizinische Klinik des Klinikums; Potsdam: Abteilung für Innere Medizin II des St Josefs Krankenhaus; Rosenheim: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Rothenburg: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses Rothenburg o.d.T. gGmbH; Schweinfurt: Neurologische Intensivstation - Stroke Unit des Leopoldina-Krankenhauses; Starnberg: Medizinische Klinik des Kreiskrankenhauses GmbH; Straubing: II. Medizinische Klinik des Klinikums St Elisabeth; Traunstein: Innere und Neurologische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses Traunstein; Weiden: Neurologische Klinik und Medizinische Klinik II–Kardiologie des Klinikums; Werneck: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses Markt Werneck; Wolfratshausen: Innere Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses; Wuerzburg: Neurologische Klinik der Universität Wuerzburg; coordinating center: Geschäftsstelle der Bayer, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Qualitätssicherung in der stationären Versorgung–BAQ, München.

Stroke Register Hamburg: Hamburg: Neurologische Klinik des Universitätsklinikums Hamburg-Eppendorf, Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Barmbek (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses St Georg (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Harburg (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Wandsbek (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Altona (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Klinikums Nord (LBK Hbg), Abteilung für Innere Medizin des Evangelischen Krankenhauses Alsterdorf, Medizinische Abteilung des Bethesda Allg. Krankenhauses Bergedorf, Neurologische Klinik des Katholischen Marienkrankenhauses, Innere Abteilung des Evangelisches Amalie Sieveking Krankenhauses, Neurologische Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Eilbek (LBK Hbg), Abteilung für Neurologie und Psychiatrie des Albertinen Krankenhauses, Abteilung fuer Neurologie des Krankenhauses Itzehoe, Medizinische Abteilung des Wilhelmsburger Krankenhauses “Gross Sand,” Innere Abteilung des Allg. Krankenhauses Eilbek (LBK Hbg), Neurologische Abteilung des Krankenhauses Buchholz, Buchholz in der Nordheide; coordinating center: Geschäftsstelle der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Externe Qualitätssicherung (EQS), Hamburg;

Stroke Register Hesse: Alsfeld: Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses des Vogelsbergkreises; Bad Zwesten: Neurologische Akutklinik; Buedingen: Innere Abteilung des Mathilden-Hospitals; Darmstadt: Innere Medizin des Alice-Hospital, Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Erbach: Geriatrische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses; Eschwege: Medizinische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses, Neurologie des Kreiskrankenhauses; Frankenberg: Innere Medizin des Kreiskrankenhauses; Frankfurt/Main: Neurologische Klinik der J.-W.-Goethe-Universität, Neurologische Klinik des Krankenhauses Nordwest, Innere Medizin des Krankenhauses Sachsenhausen, Innere Medizin des St Katharinen Krankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik des St Katharinen-Krankenhauses; Friedberg: Innere Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik der Städtischen Kliniken Hoechst; Fritzlar: Innere Medizin des Hospitals zum heiligen Geist; Fulda: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Gelnhausen: Medizinische Klinik des Kreiskrankenhauses; Giessen: Innere Medizin des Krankenhauses Balserische Stiftung, Neurologische Klinik der J. Liebig Universität; Hanau: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums Stadt Hanau, Innere Medizin des St Vinzenz-Krankenhauses; Hofgeismar: Innere Medizin der Kreisklinik; Homberg/Efze: Medizinische Klinik der Schwalm-Eder-Kliniken; Kassel: Medizinische Klinik des Elisabeth-Krankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Geriatrische Klinik des Kurhessischen Diakonissenhauses, Medizinische Klinik des Marienkrankenhauses; Korbach: Innere Medizin des Stadtkrankenhauses; Limburg: Medizinische Klinik des St Vincenz-Krankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik des St Vincenz-Krankenhauses; Lindenfels: Innere Abteilung des Luisenkrankenhauses; Marburg: Geriatrie des Diakonie-Krankenhauses Wehrda, Neurologische Klinik der Philipps-Universität; Nidda-Bad Salzhausen: Asklepios Neurologische Klinik; Offenbach: Innere Abteilung des Ketteler-Krankenhauses, Medizinische Klinik I des Klinikums, Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Rotenburg a.d. Fulda: Internistische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses; Schwalmstadt: Fachklinik für Neurologie der Hephata-Klinik; Seeheim-Jugenheim: Medizinische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses; Viernheim: Innere Medizin des St Josef-Krankenhauses; Wahlsburg: Klinik und Rehabilitationszentrum Lippoldsberg; Weilmünster: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Wetzlar: Neurologische Belegabteilung der Lahn-Dill-Kliniken; Wiesbaden: Kliniken der Inneren Medizin der Dr-Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken, Neurologisch/Psychiatrische Klinik der Dr-Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken; Medizinische Klinik I des St Josef-Hospitals; Witzenhausen: Innere Medizin des Kreis- und Stadtkrankenhauses; coordinating center: Geschäftsstelle Qualitätssicherung Hessen, Eschborn.

Stroke Register Rhineland-Palatinate: Altenkirchen: Innere Abteilung des Lukas Krankenhauses; Alzey: Abteilung für Neurologie und Neurologische Frührehabilitation der Rheinhessen-Fachklinik Alzey; Andernach: Neurologische Akutabteilung der Rhein-Mosel-Fachklinik Zentrum für Psychiatrie/Neurologie, Innere Abteilung des St Nikolaus Stiftshospitals; Asbach: Innere und Neurologische Abteilung der Kamillus Klinik; Bad Dürkheim: Innere Abteilung des Evang. Krankenhauses Bad Dürkheim; Bad Kreuznach: Innere Abteilung des Diakonie-Krankenhauses kreuznacher diakonie, Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses St Marienwörth; Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses Maria-Hilf; Cochem: Innere Abteilung des Marienkrankenhauses; Dahn: Innere Abteilung des St Josefskrankenhauses; Daun: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses Maria Hilf; Dierdorf: Neurologische Abteilung des Evang. u. Johanniterkrankenhauses Dierdorf/Selters; Frankenthal: Innere Abteilung des Städtisches Krankenhauses; Hermeskeil: Innere Abteilung des St Josef Krankenhauses; Idar-Oberstein: Klinik für Neurologie mit Stroke Unit des Klinikums; Kaiserslautern: Neurologische Klinik des Westpfalz-Klinikums; Kirchen/Sieg: Innere Abteilung des Elisabeth Krankenhauses; Kirn/Nahe: Innere Abteilung des Diakonie Krankenhauses Kirn kreuznacher diakonie; Klingenmünster: Neurologische Abteilung des Pfalzklinikums für Psychiatrie und Neurologie; Koblenz: Neurologische Abteilung des Kath. Klinikums Marienhof/St Josef; Landau: Innere Abteilung des Städtischen Krankenhauses; Landstuhl: Innere Abteilung des St Johannis Krankenhauses; Linz/Rhein: Innere Abteilung des Franziskus Krankenhauses; Ludwigshafen: Neurologische Klinik mit klinischer Neurophysiologie des Klinikums der Stadt; Innere Abteilung des St Marien- und St Annastiftskrankenhauses; Mainz: Klinik und Poliklink für Neurologie des Klinikums der Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Innere Abteilung des St Hildegardis Krankenhauses; Meisenheim: Neurologische Klinik; Neustadt/Weinstrasse: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses Hetzelstift; Neuwied: Innere Abteilung des DRK Krankenhauses, Innere Abteilung des St Elisabeth-Krankenhauses; Pirmasens: Innere Abteilung des Städtischen Krankenhauses; Rodalben: Innere Abteilung des St Elisabeth Krankenhauses; Saarburg: Innere Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses St Franziskus; Speyer: Innere Abteilung des Krankenhauses der Ev. Diakonissenanstalt, Innere Abteilung des Stiftungskrankenhauses; Trier: Neurologische Abteilung des Krankenhauses der Barmherzigen Brüder, Innere Abteilung des Evangelischen Elisabeth-Krankenhauses, Innere Abteilung der Krankenanstalt Mutterhaus der Borromäerinnen, Innere Abteilung des Marienkrankenhauses; Wissen: Innere Abteilung des St Antonius Krankenhauses; Wittlich: Neurologische Abteilung des Krankenhauses St Elisabeth; Worms: Innere Klinik I des Stadtkrankenhauses; Zweibrücken: Innere Abteilung des St Elisabeth Krankenhauses; Innere Abteilung des Evang. Krankenhauses Bad Dürkheim; coordinating center: Geschäftsstelle Qualitätssicherung Rheinland-Pfalz/SQMed GmbH, Mainz.

Stroke Register Westphalia: Arnsberg: Medizinische Klinik des Marienhospitals; Bad Pyrmont: Neurologische Klinik des Bathildis Krankenhauses; Bochum: Geriatrische Abteilung Marienhospital Wattenscheid, Geriatrische Abteilung der Augusta-Krankenanstalt, Neurologische Klinik Bergmannsheil, Neurologische Klinik des St Josef-Hospitals, Neurologische Universitätsklinik des Knappschaftskrankenhauses, St-Maria-Hilf-Krankenhaus, Medizinische Klinik des St Elisabeth-Hospitals; St Josef-Hospital Bochum-Linden; Borken: Neurologische Abteilung des St Marien-Hospitals; Bottrop: Neurologische Klinik des Knappschafts-Krankenhauses; Castrop-Rauxel: Neurologische Klinik des Evangelischen Krankenhauses; Celle: Neurologische Klinik des Allgemeinen Krankenhauses; Damme: Neurologische Abteilung des Krankenhauses St Elisabeth-Stift; Diepholz: Medizinische Abteilung des Kreiskrankenhauses; Dortmund: Kath.Krankenhaus West, Neurologische Abteilung des Knappschaftskrankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik der Städtischen Kliniken, Medizinische Klinik der Städtischen Kliniken Nord, Medizinische Klinik des St Josefs-Hospitals, Medizinische Klinik des Krankenhauses Bethanien, Medizinische Klinik des Knappschaftskrankenhauses, Geriatrische Klinik des Hüttenhospitals; Duelmen: Neurologische Klinik des Franziskus Hospitals; Emden: Neurologische Klinik des Hans-Susemihl-Krankenhauses; Gelsenkirchen: Neurologische Klinik des Evangelischen Krankenhauses; Greifswald: Neurologische Universitaetsklinik; Guetersloh: Neurologische Klinik der Westfälischen Klinik; Hagen: Neurologische Klinik des St Johannes Hospitals; Hamm: Angiologische Abteilung des Evangelisches Krankenhauses, Neurologische Klinik des St Marien-Hospitals, Medizinische Klinik der StBarbara Klinik Heesen; Hannover: Neurologische Klinik Friederikenstift, Neurologische Klinik des Nordstadt Krankenhauses; Herdecke: Neurologische Klinik des Gemeinschaftskrankenhauses; Herne: Evangelisches Krankenhaus; Laatzen: Agnes-Karl-Krankenhaus; Lippe-Lemgo: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Luebbecke: Medizinische Klinik des Krankenhauses; Lüdenscheid: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Minden: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Muenster: Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Muenster, Medizinische Klinik der Raphaelsklinik, Medizinische Klinik des Franziskus-Hospitals; Minden: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Osnabrueck: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; Paderborn: Neurologische Klinik des St Vincenz Krankenhauses; Plau am See: Neurologische Abteilung des Krankenhauses; Recklinghausen: Neurologische Klinik des Knappschafts-Krankenhauses, Geriatrisch-Neurologische Abteilung des Elisabeth-Krankenhauses; Geriatrische Abteilung des Prosper-Hospitals; Quakenbrück: Neurologische Klinik des Christlichen Krankenhauses; Vechta: Geriatrisch-Medizinische Abteilung des St Marien Hospitals; Warendorf: Medizinische Klinik des Joseph-Hospitals; Westerstede: Neurologische Klinik der Ammerland Klinik; Wuppertal: Neurologische Klinik des Klinikums; coordinating center: Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin, Universität Münster.

Funding/Support: The data analyses and the data pooling of the German Stroke Registers Study Group are funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) within the Competence Net Stroke.

Role of the Sponsor: The BMBF had no role in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation or preparation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the Fifth World Stroke Conference, June 24, 2004, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Adams HP Jr, Adams RJ, Brott T.  et al.  Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association.  Stroke. 2003;34:1056-1083
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Reed SD, Cramer SC, Blough DK, Meyer K, Jarvik JG. Treatment with tissue plasminogen activator and inpatient mortality rates for patients with ischemic stroke treated in community hospitals.  Stroke. 2001;32:1832-1840
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Katzan IL, Hammer MD, Furlan AJ, Hixson ED, Nadzam DM. Quality improvement and tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a Cleveland update.  Stroke. 2003;34:799-800
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Johnston SC, Fung LH, Gillum LA.  et al.  Utilization of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke at academic medical centers: the influence of ethnicity.  Stroke. 2001;32:1061-1068
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wang DZ, Rose JA, Honings DS, Garwacki DJ, Milbrandt JC. Treating acute stroke patients with intravenous tPA: the OSF stroke network experience.  Stroke. 2000;31:77-81
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kleindorfer D, Kissela B, Schneider A.  et al.  Eligibility for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: a population-based study.  Stroke. 2004;35:e27-e29
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heuschmann PU, Berger K, Misselwitz B.  et al. German Stroke Registers Study Group.  Frequency of thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the risk of in-hospital mortality.  Stroke. 2003;34:1106-1113
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Warlow C, Wardlaw J. Therapeutic thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke.  BMJ. 2003;326:233-234
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heuschmann PU, Kolominsky-Rabas PL, Kugler C.  et al.  Quality assurance in treatment of stroke: basic module of the German Stroke Registers Study Group [in German].  Gesundheitswesen. 2000;62:547-552
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Christiansen W, Kunze K, Foerster M. Quality control assessment for stroke management [abstract].  Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998;8:(suppl 4)  38
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Arbeitsgruppe Schlaganfall Hessen.  Care of stroke patients in the acute phase: initial evaluation of a database for concomitant external quality assurance in Hesse.  Aktuelle Neurol. 1999;26:8-16
Link to Article
Schmidt WP, Taeger D, Buecker-Nott HJ, Berger K. The impact of the day of the week and month of admission on the length of hospital stay in stroke patients.  Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;16:247-252
PubMed   |  Link to Article
 Statistical Yearbook 2003 for the Federal Republic of GermanyWiesbaden, Germany: Federal Statistical Office; 2003
Hatano S. Experience from a multicentre stroke register: a preliminary report.  Bull World Health Organ. 1976;54:541-553
PubMed
Katzan IL, Furlan AJ, Lloyd LE.  et al.  Use of tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: the Cleveland area experience.  JAMA. 2000;283:1151-1158
PubMed   |  Link to Article
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group.  Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke.  N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581-1587
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wardlaw JM, Sandercock PA, Berge E. Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: where do we go from here? a cumulative meta-analysis.  Stroke. 2003;34:1437-1442
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Gorman MJ, Bates VE.  et al.  Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in patients aged 80 years and older: the tPA stroke survey experience.  Stroke. 2000;31:370-375
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Weir NU, Sandercock PA, Lewis SC, Signorini DF, Warlow CP. Variations between countries in outcome after stroke in the International Stroke Trial (IST).  Stroke. 2001;32:1370-1377
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Weimar C, Konig IR, Kraywinkel K, Ziegler A, Diener HC. Age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score within 6 hours after onset are accurate predictors of outcome after cerebral ischemia: development and external validation of prognostic models.  Stroke. 2004;35:158-162
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Bates VE, Verro P.  et al. t-PA Stroke Survey Group.  Initial clinical experience with IV tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a multicenter survey.  Neurology. 1999;53:424-427
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Graham GD. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: a meta-analysis of safety data.  Stroke. 2003;34:2847-2850
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Thiemann DR, Coresh J, Oetgen WJ, Powe NR. The association between hospital volume and survival after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients.  N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1640-1648
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Canto JG, Every NR, Magid DJ.  et al. National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Investigators.  The volume of primary angioplasty procedures and survival after acute myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1573-1580
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Handschu R, Littmann R, Reulbach U.  et al.  Telemedicine in emergency evaluation of acute stroke: interrater agreement in remote video examination with a novel multimedia system.  Stroke. 2003;34:2842-2846
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Kasner SE, Demchuk AM.  et al.  Markers of increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: the Multicenter rt-PA Stroke Survey.  Circulation. 2002;105:1679-1685
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Ross-Degnan D, Christiansen CL, Gurwitz JH. Effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: cause for concern in the old-old.  Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:561-568
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Characteristics of Patients With Ischemic Stroke Treated With Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality After tPA Treatment: Univariate and Multivariate Analyses*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Relationship of Age and In-Hospital Mortality After tPA Treatment, Stratified by Level of Consciousness
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Frequency of Serious Complications After tPA Use During Acute Care Hospital Stays and Impact on Risk of In-Hospital Death*

References

Adams HP Jr, Adams RJ, Brott T.  et al.  Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association.  Stroke. 2003;34:1056-1083
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Reed SD, Cramer SC, Blough DK, Meyer K, Jarvik JG. Treatment with tissue plasminogen activator and inpatient mortality rates for patients with ischemic stroke treated in community hospitals.  Stroke. 2001;32:1832-1840
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Katzan IL, Hammer MD, Furlan AJ, Hixson ED, Nadzam DM. Quality improvement and tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a Cleveland update.  Stroke. 2003;34:799-800
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Johnston SC, Fung LH, Gillum LA.  et al.  Utilization of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke at academic medical centers: the influence of ethnicity.  Stroke. 2001;32:1061-1068
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wang DZ, Rose JA, Honings DS, Garwacki DJ, Milbrandt JC. Treating acute stroke patients with intravenous tPA: the OSF stroke network experience.  Stroke. 2000;31:77-81
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kleindorfer D, Kissela B, Schneider A.  et al.  Eligibility for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: a population-based study.  Stroke. 2004;35:e27-e29
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heuschmann PU, Berger K, Misselwitz B.  et al. German Stroke Registers Study Group.  Frequency of thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the risk of in-hospital mortality.  Stroke. 2003;34:1106-1113
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Warlow C, Wardlaw J. Therapeutic thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke.  BMJ. 2003;326:233-234
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Heuschmann PU, Kolominsky-Rabas PL, Kugler C.  et al.  Quality assurance in treatment of stroke: basic module of the German Stroke Registers Study Group [in German].  Gesundheitswesen. 2000;62:547-552
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Christiansen W, Kunze K, Foerster M. Quality control assessment for stroke management [abstract].  Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998;8:(suppl 4)  38
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Arbeitsgruppe Schlaganfall Hessen.  Care of stroke patients in the acute phase: initial evaluation of a database for concomitant external quality assurance in Hesse.  Aktuelle Neurol. 1999;26:8-16
Link to Article
Schmidt WP, Taeger D, Buecker-Nott HJ, Berger K. The impact of the day of the week and month of admission on the length of hospital stay in stroke patients.  Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;16:247-252
PubMed   |  Link to Article
 Statistical Yearbook 2003 for the Federal Republic of GermanyWiesbaden, Germany: Federal Statistical Office; 2003
Hatano S. Experience from a multicentre stroke register: a preliminary report.  Bull World Health Organ. 1976;54:541-553
PubMed
Katzan IL, Furlan AJ, Lloyd LE.  et al.  Use of tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: the Cleveland area experience.  JAMA. 2000;283:1151-1158
PubMed   |  Link to Article
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group.  Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke.  N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581-1587
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wardlaw JM, Sandercock PA, Berge E. Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: where do we go from here? a cumulative meta-analysis.  Stroke. 2003;34:1437-1442
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Gorman MJ, Bates VE.  et al.  Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in patients aged 80 years and older: the tPA stroke survey experience.  Stroke. 2000;31:370-375
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Weir NU, Sandercock PA, Lewis SC, Signorini DF, Warlow CP. Variations between countries in outcome after stroke in the International Stroke Trial (IST).  Stroke. 2001;32:1370-1377
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Weimar C, Konig IR, Kraywinkel K, Ziegler A, Diener HC. Age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score within 6 hours after onset are accurate predictors of outcome after cerebral ischemia: development and external validation of prognostic models.  Stroke. 2004;35:158-162
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Bates VE, Verro P.  et al. t-PA Stroke Survey Group.  Initial clinical experience with IV tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a multicenter survey.  Neurology. 1999;53:424-427
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Graham GD. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: a meta-analysis of safety data.  Stroke. 2003;34:2847-2850
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Thiemann DR, Coresh J, Oetgen WJ, Powe NR. The association between hospital volume and survival after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients.  N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1640-1648
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Canto JG, Every NR, Magid DJ.  et al. National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Investigators.  The volume of primary angioplasty procedures and survival after acute myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1573-1580
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Handschu R, Littmann R, Reulbach U.  et al.  Telemedicine in emergency evaluation of acute stroke: interrater agreement in remote video examination with a novel multimedia system.  Stroke. 2003;34:2842-2846
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tanne D, Kasner SE, Demchuk AM.  et al.  Markers of increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: the Multicenter rt-PA Stroke Survey.  Circulation. 2002;105:1679-1685
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Ross-Degnan D, Christiansen CL, Gurwitz JH. Effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: cause for concern in the old-old.  Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:561-568
PubMed   |  Link to Article
CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 118

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
JAMAevidence.com

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
Severe Stroke