Race and ethnicity are constantly evolving concepts, deceptively easy
to measure and used ubiquitously in the biomedical literature, yet slippery
to pinpoint as definitive individual characteristics. A current dictionary
definition of race is “a family, tribe, people, or nation belonging
to the same common stock, or a class or kind of people unified by shared interests,
habits, or characteristics.”1 For 154
years, the US government has defined race for its census takers, and for many
years census takers then defined it for US residents. The terms used reflect
the nation’s changing demographics and increasing recognition of human
diversity. The 1850 enumerators used a form that assumed a default race of
white, with a checkmark indicating nonwhites as black or mulatto, with additional
indications for free or slave.2 Indian was
added as a category in 1860. Since 1960, individuals have been able to specify
their own race and ethnicity, and by 2000 the census enumerated 126 racial
and ethnic categories.3
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 62
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
All results at
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.