Context Widespread pneumococcal conjugate vaccination may bring about epidemiologic
changes in upper respiratory tract flora of children. Of particular significance
may be an interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, in view of the recent emergence
of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S aureus.
Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of carriage of S pneumoniae and S aureus in the prevaccination
era in young children.
Design, Setting, and Patients Cross-sectional surveillance study of nasopharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae and nasal carriage of S
aureus by 790 children aged 40 months or younger seen at primary care
clinics in central Israel during February 2002.
Main Outcome Measures Carriage rates of S pneumoniae (by serotype)
and S aureus; risk factors associated with carriage
of each pathogen.
Results Among 790 children screened, 43% carried S pneumoniae and 10% carried S aureus. Staphylococcus aureus carriage among S pneumoniae carriers was 6.5% vs 12.9% in S pneumoniae noncarriers. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage among S aureus carriers was 27.5% vs 44.8% in S aureus noncarriers. Only 2.8% carried both pathogens concomitantly vs 4.3%
expected dual carriage (P = .03). Risk factors for S pneumoniae carriage (attending day care, having young
siblings, and age older than 3 months) were negatively associated with S aureus carriage.
Conclusions Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, specifically
of vaccine-type strains, is negatively associated with S aureus carriage in children. The implications of these findings in
the pneumococcal vaccine era require further investigation.