Modifiable behavioral risk factors are leading causes of mortality in
the United States. Quantifying these will provide insight into the effects
of recent trends and the implications of missed prevention opportunities.
To identify and quantify the leading causes of mortality in the United
Comprehensive MEDLINE search of English-language articles that identified
epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies linking risk behaviors and
mortality. The search was initially restricted to articles published during
or after 1990, but we later included relevant articles published in 1980 to
December 31, 2002. Prevalence and relative risk were identified during the
literature search. We used 2000 mortality data reported to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention to identify the causes and number of deaths.
The estimates of cause of death were computed by multiplying estimates of
the cause-attributable fraction of preventable deaths with the total mortality
Main Outcome Measures
Actual causes of death.
The leading causes of death in 2000 were tobacco (435 000 deaths;
18.1% of total US deaths), poor diet and physical inactivity (400 000
deaths; 16.6%), and alcohol consumption (85 000 deaths; 3.5%). Other
actual causes of death were microbial agents (75 000), toxic agents (55 000),
motor vehicle crashes (43 000), incidents involving firearms (29 000),
sexual behaviors (20 000), and illicit use of drugs (17 000).
These analyses show that smoking remains the leading cause of mortality.
However, poor diet and physical inactivity may soon overtake tobacco as the
leading cause of death. These findings, along with escalating health care
costs and aging population, argue persuasively that the need to establish
a more preventive orientation in the US health care and public health systems
has become more urgent.