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Perspectives on Care at the Close of Life | Clinician's Corner

Supporting Family Caregivers at the End of Life:  "They Don't Know What They Don't Know"

Michael W. Rabow, MD; Joshua M. Hauser, MD; Jocelia Adams, RN
JAMA. 2004;291(4):483-491. doi:10.1001/jama.291.4.483.
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Even for patients receiving complex, intensive medical care for serious and life-threatening illness, family caregiving is typically at the core of what sustains patients at the end of life. The amorphous relationship between physicians and the families of patients at the end of life presents both challenges and opportunities for which physicians may be unprepared. Families play important roles in the practical and emotional aspects of patient care and in decision making at the end of life. At the same time, family members may carry significant burdens as a result of their work. Through the perspectives of the wife, daughter, and home care nurse of a patient who died from pancreatic cancer, we illustrate the range of family caregiver experiences and suggest potentially helpful physician interventions. We describe 5 burdens of family caregiving (time and logistics, physical tasks, financial costs, emotional burdens and mental health risks, and physical health risks) and review the responsibilities of physicians to family caregivers. Based on available evidence, we identify 5 areas of opportunity for physicians to be of service to family members caring for patients at the end of life, including promoting excellent communication with family, encouraging appropriate advance care planning and decision making, supporting home care, demonstrating empathy for family emotions and relationships, and attending to family grief and bereavement. In caring well for family caregivers at the end of life, physicians may not only improve the experiences of patients and family but also find greater sustenance and meaning in their own work.

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