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About This Journal |

Instructions for Authors FREE

JAMA. 2004;291(1):125-129. doi:10.1001/jama.291.1.0.
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Published online

JAMA is an international, peer-reviewed, general medical journal that is distributed to readers in more than 140 countries and is published in multiple international editions and languages.

Manuscript Submission. All manuscripts should be sent to the Editor, JAMA, 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60610, USA; telephone: (312) 464-2402; fax: (312) 464-5824; e-mail: jamams@jama-archives.org. We encourage authors to submit manuscripts via e-mail. When submitting by e-mail, print mail address and telephone and fax numbers also should be included. Tables, figures, and text should be included in the same file if possible. Manuscripts submitted by e-mail should not also be submitted by mail or fax.

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission. Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Copies of possibly duplicative materials (ie, those containing substantially similar content or using the same or similar data) that have been previously published or are being considered elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.1(pp98-102)

Previous Presentation or Release of Information. A complete report following presentation at a meeting or publication of preliminary findings elsewhere (eg, an abstract) can be considered. Media coverage of meeting presentations will not jeopardize consideration, but direct release of information through press releases or news media briefings may preclude consideration by JAMA.2 Rare instances of papers reporting public health emergencies should be discussed with the editor. Authors submitting manuscripts or letters to the editor regarding adverse drug or medical device reactions, reportable diseases, and the like should also report such to the relevant government agency.

JAMA-EXPRESS.JAMA-EXPRESS provides rapid peer review and publication of original research of major clinical or public health importance.3 All such manuscripts must be screened and approved for JAMA-EXPRESS before submission. Authors who wish to have manuscripts considered for JAMA-EXPRESS should send the manuscript file and a request letter to jamaexpress@jama-archives.org or call (312) 464-2402.

JAMA publishes original contributions, reviews, brief reports, special communications, commentaries, and many other categories of articles. Topics of interest include all subjects that relate to the practice of medicine and the betterment of public health worldwide. The most frequently published types of articles are described herein.

Original Contributions. Randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates. Registered trials should include the registry and registration number. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a comment section placing the results in context with the published literature; and the conclusions. For more information, see instructions for preparing structured abstracts on page 127. Typical length: up to 3000 words (not including tables, figures, and references).

Systematic Reviews. Systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion and be critically evaluated, and the selection process should be described in the paper. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. Meta-analyses also will be considered as reviews.1(pp528-529) For more information, see instructions for preparing structured abstracts on page 127. Typical length: up to 3000 words (not including tables, figures, and references).

Clinical Reviews. These review articles address a specific question or issue that is relevant for clinical practice and provide an evidence-based, balanced, patient-oriented review on a focused topic. Clinical reviews should include the clinical question or issue and its importance for general medical practice, specialty practice, or public health; description of how the relevant evidence was identified, assessed for quality, and selected for inclusion; synthesis of the available evidence such that the best-quality evidence (eg, well-conducted clinical trials, meta-analyses, and prospective cohort studies) should receive the greatest emphasis; and discussion of controversial aspects and unresolved issues. Maximum length: 3000 words of text, with no more than a total of 4 tables and/or figures, and no more than 50 references. Authors interested in submitting a Clinical Review manuscript should contact the editorial office prior to manuscript preparation and submission.

Brief Reports. Short reports of original studies or evaluations or unique, first-time reports of clinical case series. Typical length: 750-1200 words (not including tables, figures, and references).

Letters to the Editor. Letters discussing a recent JAMA article will have the best chance of acceptance if they are received within 4 weeks of the article's publication. Such letters should not exceed 400 words of text and 5 references. Research Letters reporting original research also are welcome and should not exceed 600 words of text and 6 references and may include a table or figure. Letters should be double-spaced and a word count should be provided with each letter. We prefer that letters be submitted electronically, to jama-letters@jama-archives.org. Letters can also be faxed to the editorial office at (312) 464-5225 (also mail a hard copy).

Manuscripts should meet the following criteria: material is original; writing is clear; study methods are appropriate; the data are valid; conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data; information is important; and topic has general medical interest. From these basic criteria, we assess a paper's eligibility for publication. We receive approximately 5000 papers each year and publish about 8% of unsolicited manuscripts.

Designate a corresponding author and provide a complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address. The corresponding author will be identified as such in the published article.

Authorship Requirements. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based only on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met.4

Authors are required to identify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript. With the cover letter include the authorship form with statements on (1) authorship responsibility, criteria, and contributions, (2) financial disclosure, and (3) either copyright transfer or federal employment. Each of these 3 statements must be read and signed by all authors.1(pp89-93) (4) The corresponding author must sign the Acknowledgment statement. Authors should obtain written permission from all individuals named in an Acknowledgment, since readers may infer their endorsement of data and conclusions.1(pp96-97) See authorship form.

Group Authorship. If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to 1 or more individual authors), all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship as described above.5 A group must designate 1 or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meet full authorship criteria and requirements. Other group members who are not authors may be listed in an Acknowledgment.1(pp93-95),5

Data Access and Responsibility. For reports containing original data, at least 1 author (eg, the principal investigator) should indicate that she or he "had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis."6

Funding/Support and Role of Sponsor. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified in an Acknowledgment. The role of the funding organization or sponsor in each of the following should be specified: design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.6

Conflict of Interest. Authors should indicate potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests relevant to the subject of their manuscript, in their cover letter and on THE JOURNAL's financial disclosure form or in an attachment to the form. Authors without relevant financial interests in the manuscript should indicate no such interest (See Authorship Criteria and Responsibility Form).6

Peer Review. All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by a JAMA editor. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Other manuscripts are sent to expert consultants for peer review. Peer reviewer identities are kept confidential, but author identities are known by reviewers. The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone other than peer reviewers and editorial staff. Information from submitted manuscripts may be systematically collected and analyzed as part of research to improve the quality of the editorial or peer review process. Identifying information remains confidential.

Rejected Manuscripts. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless specifically requested. Print copies of original illustrations, photographs, and slides will be returned.

Editing. Accepted manuscripts are edited in accordance with the American Medical Association Manual of Style1 and returned to the author for approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the manuscript editor and authorized by the corresponding author.

Embargo Policy. All information regarding the content and publication date of accepted manuscripts is strictly confidential. Information contained in or about accepted articles cannot appear in print, on radio or television, or in electronic form or be released by the news media until 3 PM CST on Tuesday, the day before its publication date.2

Unauthorized Use. Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the American Medical Association (AMA) and may not be published elsewhere without written permission. Unauthorized use of the JAMA name, logo, or any content for commercial purposes or to promote commercial goods and services (in any format, including print, video, audio, and digital) is not permitted by JAMA or the AMA.

Reprints. Reprint order forms are included with the edited typescript sent for approval to the corresponding author. Reprints ship 2 weeks after publication.

Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the American Medical Association Manual of Style1 and/or the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.4

  • If submitting by e-mail, text, tables, and figures should be included in the same file. Do not submit duplicate copies by mail or fax.

  • If submitting by mail, submit the original manuscript and 3 photocopies; use 1 side of standard-sized paper and 1-inch margins.

  • Double-space throughout, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, figure legends, and tables. Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

  • On the title page, include word count for text only, exclusive of title, abstract, references, figure legends, and tables.

  • Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text.

  • Use 10-, 11-, or 12-point font size.

  • On the title page include the full names, highest academic degrees, and affiliations of all authors. If an author's affiliation has changed since the work was done, list the new affiliation as well.

  • Units of Measure. Conventional units of measure are preferred, with Système International (SI) units expressed secondarily (in parentheses). In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI may be presented in the footnote or legend to economize space. Exceptions to this policy include calories, hematocrit, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and ejection fraction, for which conventional units alone should be expressed. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. For more details, see the SI unit conversion table.

  • Use nonproprietary names of drugs, devices, and other products, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion.1(pp355-356)

  • Consult the Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee site for gene names and symbols (http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature).

Abstract. Include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for reports of original data, reviews and, meta-analyses. (See instructions for preparing structured abstracts.) For other major manuscripts, include an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words that summarizes the objective, main points, and conclusions of the article. Abstracts are not required for editorials, commentaries, and special features.

Ethical Requirements. For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board approval is required and should be so stated.1(p140) For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed.7 For investigations of human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants.

Patient Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees. Include a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission.1(pp141-142) See patient permission form.

Personal Communications and Unpublished Data. Include a signed statement of permission from each individual identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data, and specify the date of communication and whether the communication was written or oral.1(p125)

Permissions Required to Reproduce or Adapt Material. Acknowledge all text, illustrations, and tables adapted or reproduced from other publications. Submit permission from the original publishers (or other copyright owner) to republish "in print, online, and licensed versions ofJAMA."1(pp123-124) (See permission form.) Provide a copy of the original source documents.

References. Number references in the order they appear in the text; do not alphabetize. In text, tables, and legends, identify references with superscript arabic numerals. When listing references, follow AMA style1(pp28-51) and abbreviate names of journals according to Index Medicus. Note: List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by et al.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

1. Gordon KB, Papp KA, Hamilton TK, et al, for the Efalizumab Study Group. Efalizumab for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290:3073-3080.

2. Dybul M, Connors M, Fauci AS. Immunology of HIV infection. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003:1285-1318.

3. Key and critical objectives of JAMA. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/about_current.dtl. Accessed January 2, 2004.

Number all tables and figures in the order of their citation in the text. Include a title for each table and figure—a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words.

Tables. Title all tables and number them in order of their citation in the text. Double-space each table on separate sheets of standard-sized white paper. If a table must be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet, followed by "(cont)." Also include copies of all tables on the disk that is submitted with the manuscript or at the end of the text document for electronic submissions.

Figures. For initial manuscript submissions, figures must be of sufficient quality for peer review.

Hard copy submissions: provide 1 set of figures and 3 sets of copies. For black-and-white graphs and illustrations, provide high-resolution (600 dpi minimum) laser printouts. For color graphs and illustrations, provide color inkjet or laser printouts. For photographs (halftone, including radiographic images, and color), provide high-quality, unlabeled prints. Do not mark directly on photographic prints. Apply indicators and labels only on a second print, overlay, or photocopy of the original print. Affix a sticker with figure number, title, name of first author, short form of the manuscript title, and an arrow indicating top to the back of each print.

For e-mail submissions, embed all figures in the text document at the end of the file.

For photographs (hard copy and e-mail submissions), digitally processed images must not be altered. Include internal scale markers in photomicrographs and electron micrographs whether submitted as photographic prints or as digital files.

At the time of manuscript revision or acceptance, publication-quality photographic images will be requested. All graphs and illustrations will be re-created according to JAMA style and standards prior to publication. Original illustrations, photographs, and slides from rejected manuscripts will be returned to authors.

Figure Legends (captions). For hard copy submissions, include double-spaced legends (maximum length, 40 words) on separate pages. For e-mail submissions, include legends in the text document at the end of the file. For photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification, and stain.

□ 1.Include original manuscript and 3 copies if submitting by mail.

□ 2. If submitting by e-mail, include text, tables, and figures in a single file (if possible) as well as mailing address and telephone and fax numbers.

□ 3. On the title page, include a word count for text only, exclusive of title, abstract, references, tables, and figure legends.

□ 4. On the title page, designate a corresponding author and provide a complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.

□ 5. Provide an abstract that conforms to the required abstract format.

□ 6. Double-space manuscript and leave right margins unjustified (ragged).

□ 7. Check all references for accuracy and completeness. Put references in proper format in numerical order, making sure each is cited in sequence in the text.

□ 8. Include a title for each table and figure—a brief, succinct phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words—and explanatory legend as needed.

□ 9. Send 4 sets (1 original and 3 copies) of all figures and tables with titles and legends for each if submitting by mail.

□ 10. Include statements signed by each author for authorship responsibility, criteria, and contributions; financial disclosure; and copyright transfer or federal employment.

□ 11. Indicate specific contributions from each author (see authorship checklist).

□ 12. Include statement signed by corresponding author that written permission has been obtained from all persons named in the Acknowledgment.

□ 13. For reports of original data, include statement from at least 1 author that she or he "had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis."

□ 14. Include research or project support/funding in the Acknowledgment.

□ 15. The role of the funding organization or sponsor in each of the following should be specified: design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

□ 16. Include written permission from each individual identified as a source for personal communication or unpublished data.

□ 17. Include written permission from publishers (or other copyright owner) to reproduce or adapt previously published text, figures, and tables in print, online, and licensed versions of JAMA. See online form. Provide a copy of the original source.

□ 18. Include informed consent forms for identifiable patient descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees. See online form.

All reports of original data, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and clinical reviews should be submitted with structured abstracts as described below. No information should be reported in the abstract that does not appear in the text of the manuscript. The following is adapted from "More informative abstracts revisited."8

Reports of original data should include an abstract of no more than 300 words using the following headings: Context, Objective, Design, Setting, Patients (or Participants), Interventions (include only if there are any), Main Outcome Measure(s), Results, and Conclusions. For brevity, parts of the abstract may be written as phrases rather than complete sentences. Each section should include the following content:

1. Context. The abstract should begin with a sentence or 2 explaining the clinical (or other) importance of the study question.

2. Objective. State the precise objective or study question addressed in the report (eg, "To determine whether . . ."). If more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If an a priori hypothesis was tested, it should be stated.

3. Design. Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. If applicable, include the name of the study (eg, the Framingham Heart Study).

4. Setting. Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care.

5. Patients or Other Participants. State the clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographic features of patients. The numbers of participants and how they were selected should be provided (see below), including the number of otherwise eligible individuals who were approached but refused. If matching is used for comparison groups, characteristics that are matched should be specified. In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the study must be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawn because of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, these terms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers to a formal, randomized selection in which all eligible individuals have a fixed and usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referred sample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.

6. Intervention(s). The essential features of any interventions should be described, including their method and duration of administration. The intervention should be named by its most common clinical name, and nonproprietary drug names should be used.

7. Main Outcome Measure(s). Indicate the primary study outcome measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated. State clearly if the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection.

8. Results. The main outcomes of the study should be provided and quantified, including confidence intervals (for example, 95%) or P values. For comparative studies, confidence intervals should relate to the differences between groups. Explain measurements unfamiliar to a general medical readership. Important measurements not presented in results should be declared. As relevant, indicate whether observers were blinded to patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements. If differences for the major study outcome measure(s) are not significant, the clinically important difference sought should be stated and the confidence interval for the difference between the groups should be given. When risk changes or effect sizes are given, absolute values should be indicated. Approaches such as number needed to treat to achieve a unit of benefit are encouraged when appropriate; reporting of relative differences alone is insufficient. Studies of screening and diagnostic tests should report sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio. If predictive value or accuracy is given, prevalence or pretest likelihood should be given as well. All randomized controlled trials should include the results of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include response rates.

9. Conclusions. Provide only conclusions of the study directly supported by the results, along with implications for clinical practice, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used in usual clinical settings. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.

Manuscripts reporting the results of meta-analyses should include an abstract of no more than 300 words using the following headings: Context, Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Data Synthesis, and Conclusions. The text of the manuscript should also include a section describing the methods used for data sources, study selection, data extraction, and data synthesis. Each heading should be followed by a brief description:

1. Context. A sentence or 2 explaining the importance of the review question.

2. Objective. State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.

3. Data Sources. Succinctly summarize data sources, including years searched. Potential sources include computerized databases and published indexes, registries, abstract booklets, conference proceedings, references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles and books, experts or research institutions active in the field, and companies or manufacturers of tests or agents being reviewed. If a bibliographic database is used, state the exact indexing terms used for article retrieval, including any constraints (for example, English language or human subjects). If abstract space does not permit this level of detail, summarize sources in the abstract including databases and years searched, and place the remainder of the information in the Methods section.

4. Study Selection. Describe inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select studies for detailed review from among studies identified as relevant to the topic. Details of selection should include particular populations, interventions, outcomes, or methodological designs. The method used to apply these criteria should be specified (for example, blinded review, consensus, multiple reviewers). State the proportion of initially identified studies that met selection criteria.

5. Data Extraction. Describe guidelines used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity (such as criteria for causal inference). The method by which the guidelines were applied should be stated (for example, independent extraction by multiple observers).

6. Data Synthesis. State the main results of the review, whether qualitative or quantitative, and outline the methods used to obtain these results. Meta-analyses should state the major outcomes that were pooled and include odds ratios or effect sizes and, if possible, sensitivity analyses. Numerical results should be accompanied by confidence intervals, if applicable, and exact levels of statistical significance. Evaluations of screening and diagnostic tests should include sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, receiver operating characteristic curves, and predictive values. Assessments of prognosis should summarize survival characteristics and related variables. Major identified sources of variation between studies should be stated, including differences in treatment protocols, co-interventions, confounders, outcome measures, length of follow-up, and dropout rates.

7. Conclusions. The conclusions and their applications (clinical or otherwise) should be clearly stated, limiting interpretation to the domain of the review.

Clinical Review articles should include an abstract of no more than 250 words with the following sections: Context, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, and Conclusions.

Context. Include 1 or 2 sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public heath.

Evidence Acquisition. Describe the data sources used, including the search strategies, years searched, and other sources of material, such as subsequent reference searches of retreived articles. Methods used for quality assessment and inclusion of identified articles should be explained.

Evidence Synthesis. The major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic should be addressed in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced fashion, with the highest quality evidence available receiving the greatest emphasis.

Conclusions. The conclusions should clearly answer the questions posed if applicable, be based on available evidence, and emphasize how clinicians should apply current knowledge.

Manuscripts reporting the results of randomized trials should include the CONSORT flow diagram showing the progress of patients throughout the trial (see Figure 1). The CONSORT checklist (see Table 1) also should be completed and submitted with the manuscript.9

Figure. Profile of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Graphic Jump Location
Progress through the stages of a trial, including flow of participants, withdrawals, and timing of primary and secondary outcome measures.
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Checklist of Items to Include When Reporting a Randomized Trial

Authors of reports of diagnostic tests are encouraged to submit the STARD flow diagram and checklist (for more information, see Clin Chem. 2003;49:1-6; 7-18 or http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/49/1/1).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Checklist for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

Authors of reports of meta-analyses of randomized trials are encouraged to submit the QUOROM flow diagram and checklist (http://www.consort-statement.org/QUOROM.pdf). Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies are encouraged to submit the MOOSE checklist (http://www.consort-statement.org/MOOSE.pdf).

Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB.  et al.  American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 9th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
Fontanarosa PB, Flanagin A, DeAngelis CD. THE JOURNAL's policy regarding release of information to the public.  JAMA.2000;284:2929-2931.
Winker MA, Fontanarosa PB. JAMA-EXPRESS: rapid peer review and publication.  JAMA.1999;281:1754-1755.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Available at: http://www.icmje.org. Accessed June 9, 2003.
Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, DeAngelis CD. Authorship for research groups.  JAMA.2002;288:3166-3168.
DeAngelis CD, Fontanarosa PB, Flanagin A. Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships between investigators and research sponsors.  JAMA.2001;286:89-91.
World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/e/policy/pdf/17c.pdf. Accessed June 9, 2003.
Haynes RB, Mulrow CD, Huth EJ, Altman DG, Gardner MJ. More informative abstracts revisited.  Ann Intern Med.1990;113:69-76.
Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D, for the CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials.  JAMA.2001;285:1987-1991.

Figures

Figure. Profile of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Graphic Jump Location
Progress through the stages of a trial, including flow of participants, withdrawals, and timing of primary and secondary outcome measures.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Checklist of Items to Include When Reporting a Randomized Trial
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Checklist for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

References

Iverson C, Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB.  et al.  American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 9th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
Fontanarosa PB, Flanagin A, DeAngelis CD. THE JOURNAL's policy regarding release of information to the public.  JAMA.2000;284:2929-2931.
Winker MA, Fontanarosa PB. JAMA-EXPRESS: rapid peer review and publication.  JAMA.1999;281:1754-1755.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Available at: http://www.icmje.org. Accessed June 9, 2003.
Flanagin A, Fontanarosa PB, DeAngelis CD. Authorship for research groups.  JAMA.2002;288:3166-3168.
DeAngelis CD, Fontanarosa PB, Flanagin A. Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships between investigators and research sponsors.  JAMA.2001;286:89-91.
World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/e/policy/pdf/17c.pdf. Accessed June 9, 2003.
Haynes RB, Mulrow CD, Huth EJ, Altman DG, Gardner MJ. More informative abstracts revisited.  Ann Intern Med.1990;113:69-76.
Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D, for the CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials.  JAMA.2001;285:1987-1991.

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