Infertility, defined as 1 year of attempted conception
without success, is one of the most prevalent chronic health disorders
involving young adults.1 Affecting 6 million
or more US couples, infertility is clinically distinct from recurrent spontaneous
pregnancy loss.1 Since 1978, the management
of female infertility has been transformed by in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), first reported as an IVF laboratory
technique in 1992, has similarly changed the management of male infertility.
In vitro fertilization and ICSI have increased knowledge of the mechanisms
of fertilization and implantation, leading to better awareness of potential
fertility defects before and after fertilization, as well as possible errors
in embryonic development. The use of IVF and ICSI remains low, however, because
of the cost and complexity of the treatment.