The ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate-protein diet,
is used for the management of difficult-to-control seizures in children. Kwiterovich
and colleagues conducted a prospective study of children with intractable
seizures initiating treatment with a high-fat ketogenic diet to determine
the effect of the diet on plasma lipoproteins. After 6 months, mean plasma
levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein B–containing lipoproteins, total
cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly, and antiatherogenic
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly.