The United States spends more than twice as much on health care as the
average of other developed nations, all of which boast universal coverage.
Yet more than 41 million Americans have no health insurance. Many more are
underinsured. Confronted by the rising costs and capabilities of modern medicine,
other nations have chosen national health insurance (NHI). The United States
alone treats health care as a commodity distributed according to the ability
to pay, rather than as a social service to be distributed according to medical
need. In this market-driven system, insurers and providers compete not so
much by increasing quality or lowering costs, but by avoiding unprofitable
patients and shifting costs back to patients or to other payers. This creates
the paradox of a health care system based on avoiding the sick. It generates
huge administrative costs that, along with profits, divert resources from
clinical care to the demands of business. In addition, burgeoning satellite
businesses, such as consulting firms and marketing companies, consume an increasing
fraction of the health care dollar. We endorse a fundamental change in US
health care—the creation of an NHI program. Such a program, which in
essence would be an expanded and improved version of traditional Medicare,
would cover every American for all necessary medical care. An NHI program
would save at least $200 billion annually (more than enough to cover all of
the uninsured) by eliminating the high overhead and profits of the private,
investor-owned insurance industry and reducing spending for marketing and
other satellite services. Physicians and hospitals would be freed from the
concomitant burdens and expenses of paperwork created by having to deal with
multiple insurers with different rules, often designed to avoid payment. National
health insurance would make it possible to set and enforce overall spending
limits for the health care system, slowing cost growth over the long run.
An NHI program is the only affordable option for universal, comprehensive
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