0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Contribution |

The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Disorder:  Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) FREE

Ronald C. Kessler, PhD; Patricia Berglund, MBA; Olga Demler, MS; Robert Jin, MA; Doreen Koretz, PhD; Kathleen R. Merikangas, PhD; A. John Rush, MD; Ellen E. Walters, MS; Philip S. Wang, MD, DrPH
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Drs Kessler and Wang, Mss Demler and Walters, and Mr Jin); Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ms Berglund); Division of Mental Disorders, Behavioral Research and AIDS (Dr Koretz), and Intramural Research Program (Dr Merikangas), National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, Md; Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (Dr Rush); Brigham and Womens' Hospital, Harvard Medical School (Dr Wang).


JAMA. 2003;289(23):3095-3105. doi:10.1001/jama.289.23.3095.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Context Uncertainties exist about prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD).

Objective To present nationally representative data on prevalence and correlates of MDD by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria, and on study patterns and correlates of treatment and treatment adequacy from the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

Design Face-to-face household survey conducted from February 2001 to December 2002.

Setting The 48 contiguous United States.

Participants Household residents ages 18 years or older (N = 9090) who responded to the NCS-R survey.

Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and correlates of MDD using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 12-month severity with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the WHO disability assessment scale (WHO-DAS). Clinical reinterviews used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.

Results The prevalence of CIDI MDD for lifetime was 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.1-17.3) (32.6-35.1 million US adults) and for 12-month was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.9-7.3) (13.1-14.2 million US adults). Virtually all CIDI 12-month cases were independently classified as clinically significant using the QIDS-SR, with 10.4% mild, 38.6% moderate, 38.0% severe, and 12.9% very severe. Mean episode duration was 16 weeks (95% CI, 15.1-17.3). Role impairment as measured by SDS was substantial as indicated by 59.3% of 12-month cases with severe or very severe role impairment. Most lifetime (72.1%) and 12-month (78.5%) cases had comorbid CIDI/DSM-IV disorders, with MDD only rarely primary. Although 51.6% (95% CI, 46.1-57.2) of 12-month cases received health care treatment for MDD, treatment was adequate in only 41.9% (95% CI, 35.9-47.9) of these cases, resulting in 21.7% (95% CI, 18.1-25.2) of 12-month MDD being adequately treated. Sociodemographic correlates of treatment were far less numerous than those of prevalence.

Conclusions Major depressive disorder is a common disorder, widely distributed in the population, and usually associated with substantial symptom severity and role impairment. While the recent increase in treatment is encouraging, inadequate treatment is a serious concern. Emphasis on screening and expansion of treatment needs to be accompanied by a parallel emphasis on treatment quality improvement.

Figures in this Article

Although community surveys of mental disorders have been conducted in the United States since the end of World War II,13 it was not until the early 1980s that fully structured lay interviews were developed to diagnose specific mental disorders. The first such instrument was the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS),4 which was developed for use in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study5 to estimate the general population prevalence of mental disorders by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) criteria.6 Major depressive disorder (MDD) prevalence estimates in the ECA sites were 3.0% to 5.9% for lifetime and 1.7% to 3.4% for 12-month.7

The first nationally representative survey using a method similar to the ECA, the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS),8 was conducted a decade later in 1990-1992. The NCS diagnostic instrument was a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)9 to assess mental disorders by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R) criteria.10 The NCS age range was 15 years to 54 years, rather than 18 years or older in the ECA. The prevalence estimates of MDD in the NCS were substantially higher than in the ECA: 14.9% for lifetime and 8.6% for 12-month.11

Despite their different prevalence estimates, the ECA and NCS results were very similar in finding early age of onset of MDD12,13 and high comorbidity with other DSM disorders.11,14 A methodological study showed that the ECA-NCS prevalence differences in the age range of 18 years to 54 years could be substantially reduced by combining the 2 waves of ECA data to make up for the memory priming strategies and respondent motivation techniques used in the NCS.15

Although the estimated number of individuals in the total population who seek treatment for a mental health problem in a given year was somewhat lower in the ECA (12.3%) than the NCS (13.3%), 12-month treatment among respondents who met criteria for MDD was higher in the ECA (53.9%) than in the NCS (36.4%).16,17 A plausible interpretation is that the higher NCS prevalence estimate included more mild cases, with patients with mild MDD less likely to seek treatment. Consistent with this possibility, multiplication of estimated prevalence by conditional treatment rate leads to an estimate that 2.7% of the population was in treatment for MDD in the 12 months before the ECA survey compared with 3.1% before the NCS survey.

In the decade since the NCS was conducted, a large increase in the proportion of Americans who receive medication for depression was reported18 and a number of large programs to promote awareness of depression were launched.19,20 At least part of this growth in depression awareness and treatment has occurred as a result of a growing realization that depression is a very common and very serious illness.21,22 Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) now ranks major depression as one of the most burdensome diseases in the world.23

This growing recognition of the public health burden of depression also has led to the development and evaluation of model primary care programs for depression detection and treatment.2426 Even though a number of these programs have been shown to be cost-effective, dissemination has been hampered by reluctance to implement them on the part of primary care physicians.27

During this same time period, the American Psychiatric Association introduced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) system, which emphasizes the clinical significance requirement for a diagnosis of MDD more prominently than did in the earlier DSM editions.28 This new emphasis occurred, in no small part, in reaction to the perception that the prevalence estimates in the ECA study were unrealistically high. The even higher NCS estimates, which were published only after the DSM-IV criteria were established, only reinforced this concern.15 Indeed, a recent critique of the ECA and NCS argued that a substantial proportion of respondents classified as cases were clinically insignificant, leading to an overestimation of the 12-month depression prevalence of 29% in the ECA and of 58% in the NCS.29 However, this critique was based on the use of imprecise indicators for severity symptoms, raising questions about adjusted prevalence estimates.30

Based on the introduction of the DSM-IV criteria, in conjunction with evidence of changes in treatment over the past decade, a new national survey of mental disorders was conducted in 2001-2002. The survey was designed to update information on the prevalence, correlates, and clinical significance of DSM disorders, and to study patterns and correlates of treatment and treatment adequacy. The current report is the first presentation of results from this new survey, the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).31

Participants

The NCS-R is a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 9090 respondents ages 18 years or older conducted between February 2001 and December 2002. Respondents were selected from a multistage area probability sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in the 48 contiguous states. The response rate was 73.0%. All respondents were administered a part 1 diagnostic interview as described below, while 5554 respondents also received a part 2 interview that included assessments of risk factors and additional mental disorders. The sample receiving part 2 consisted of all respondents who screened positive for any disorder found in part 1 plus a probability subsample of other part 1 respondents.

The sample receiving part 1 was weighted to adjust for differential probabilities of selection within households and for differences in intensity of recruitment effort among hard-to-recruit cases and poststratified to match the 2000 census population distribution on a number of geographic and sociodemographic variables. The sample receiving part 2 was additionally weighted to adjust for differential probabilities of selection. The weighted sample distributions closely match those of the US population on a variety of sociodemographic and geographic variables (Table 1).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Sociodemographic Distribution of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) Sample Compared With the US Population

A probability sample of 308 NCS-R respondents completed a clinical reappraisal interview to evaluate lifetime diagnoses, and a nonoverlapping probability sample of 335 respondents completed a separate reappraisal interview to evaluate 12-month diagnoses. These reappraisal samples oversampled CIDI cases. The data were weighted to adjust for this oversampling so that estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and total classification accuracy would be unbiased.

Recruitment to the initial NCS-R interview began with a letter and study fact brochure mailed to sample households followed by an in-person interviewer visit. Interviewers explained the study procedures and obtained verbal informed consent before beginning the interview. Participants received $50 as a gift to thank them for participating. Recruitment and consent procedures were approved by the human subjects committees of both Harvard Medical School and the University of Michigan.

Measures

Diagnostic Assessment. The NCS-R diagnostic instrument was an expanded version of the WHO's CIDI,9 a fully structured instrument for use by trained interviewers who do not have clinical experience. Diagnoses are based on DSM-IV criteria.28 Organic exclusions and diagnostic hierarchy rules were both applied in making diagnoses. In addition to the prevalence and correlates of MDD, in this article we also report comorbidity with anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia without panic, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance use disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence), and a group of disorders that we refer to as "impulse-control disorders" (intermittent explosive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, bulimia, and pathological gambling).

Previous methodological research documented acceptable-to-good concordance between the NCS/CIDI diagnoses and blind clinical diagnoses, but found that the NCS CIDI overdiagnosed MDD because of false-positive assessments of dysphoria and anhedonia.32 The CIDI false-positive assessments included both respondents with clinically nonsignificant distress and those whose symptoms did not persist for most of the day, nearly every day, or for 2 weeks or longer. The NCS-R revisions attempted to correct these problems by including explicit probes for severity of dysphoria and anhedonia, by requiring clinically significant distress or impairment associated with these symptoms, and by asking separate questions about symptom duration (hours per day, days per week, and duration of depressive episodes).

The core of the clinical reappraisal interviews was the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID),33 a diagnostic interview that requires clinical expertise to administer. Nonaffective psychosis and mania were not included in the SCID because they are being assessed in separate, in-progress, focused reappraisal studies. Because of the absence of mania, the SCID cannot be used to generate diagnoses of MDD. However, it can be used to diagnose major depressive episode (MDE). A comparison of the CIDI and SCID for MDE classifications in the clinical reappraisal samples (Table 2) shows good concordance for lifetime (κ = .59; 95% CI, .47-.71) and fair concordance for 12-month (κ = .40; 95% CI, .20-.60) estimates. CIDI lifetime prevalence for MDE is significantly lower than SCID prevalence (χ21 = 8.1, P = .004) while CIDI 12-month prevalence is marginally higher than SCID prevalence (χ21 = 3.2, P = .07).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Correspondence Between Diagnoses of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R (CIDI) Sample and the Weighted Clinical Reinterview Samples (SCID)

Role Impairment. Respondents with CIDI/DSM-IV 12-month MDD were administered the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS)34 to assess the extent to which depression interfered with functioning in work, household, relationship, and social roles in the worst month of the past year. Responses were scored with a 0-to-10 visual analogue scale having response options labeled none (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), severe (7-9), and very severe (10). In addition, an open-ended question asked respondents to estimate the number of days in the past 365 days when they were "totally unable to work or carry out your normal activities" because of depression.

All respondents to part 2 of the NCS-R completed the WHO disability assessment schedule (WHO-DAS)35 to assess functional impairments in 6 domains during the past 30 days: domain 1, the number of days in the past 30 days when the respondent was completely unable to work or carry out their normal activities because of physical or mental health problems; and domains 2 to 6, the severity-persistence of impairments in 5 domains of functioning during the same time period. These domains include self-care (eg, bathing, dressing), mobility (eg, standing, walking), cognition (eg, concentrating, remembering), social functioning (eg, conversing, maintaining emotional control while around others), and role functioning (eg, quality and quantity of normal activities at home or work). All 6 WHO-DAS scales were transformed to a theoretical range of 0 (no impairment at any time in the past 30 days) to 1.0 (complete inability to perform the functions throughout the full 30 days).

Symptom Severity. Respondents who met CIDI/DSM-IV criteria for 12-month MDD were self-administered a truncated version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR)36 to assess symptom severity in the worst month of the past year. The QIDS-SR is a fully structured measure that is strongly related both to the clinician-administered Inventory of Depressive Symptomology (IDS-C)37 and to the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD).38 Transformation rules developed for the QIDS-SR39 were used to convert scores into clinical severity categories mapped to conventional HRSD ranges of none (ie, not clinically depressed), mild, moderate, severe, and very severe.

12-Month Treatment. All respondents to part 2 of the NCS-R were asked about receiving 12-month treatment for emotional problems, the type of professional seen, as well as use of support groups, self-help groups, and hotlines. Number and duration of 12-month visits also were assessed. Responses were used to classify 12-month treatment in the specialty mental health (SMH) sector (inpatient treatment or outpatient treatment with a psychiatrist, psychologist, any other mental health professional, or a social worker or counselor in a mental health specialty setting, or use of a hotline), the general medical (GM) sector (outpatient treatment with a primary care physician, other medical specialist, nurse, or any other health professional not previously mentioned), the human services (HS) sector (outpatient treatment with a religious or spiritual advisor or with a social worker or counselor in any setting other than a specialty mental health setting), and the complementary-alternative medical (CAM) sector (outpatient treatment with any other type of healer, participation in an internet support group, or participation in a self-help group). In addition, a pharmaco-epidemiologic section asked respondents about use of psychotropic medications in the past 12 months. Information was recorded by having respondents give their medicine bottles to the interviewer to inspect and to record the type of medication, duration of treatment, maximum prescribed dose, and specialty of prescribing physician.

Based on the above data, minimally adequate medical treatment for MDD was defined as receiving either (1) at least 4 outpatient visits with any type of physician for pharmacotherapy that included use of either an antidepressant or mood stabilizer for a minimum of 30 days or (2) at least 8 outpatient visits with any professional in the specialty mental health sector for psychotherapy lasting a mean of at least 30 minutes. The decision to require at least 4 pharmacotherapy visits was based on the recommendation from evidence-based treatment guidelines that no fewer than 4 visits for follow-up and medication monitoring were required during the acute and continuation phases of treatment for depression.40,41 At least 8 psychotherapy visits were required based on evidence from clinical trials that time-limited depression psychotherapy treatment with demonstrated effectiveness requires at least 8 sessions.40,41

Human services and CAM treatments were classified as not being adequate based on the absence of experimental data documenting effectiveness in treating MDD. Health care treatment, which was defined as treatment in either the SMH or GM sectors, was considered inadequate when this treatment failed to meet either of the above 2 criteria for minimally adequate treatment. Respondents who reported 12-month use of psychotropic medications under the supervision of a health care professional, but who never made a visit to that professional at any time during those 12 months, were coded as receiving inadequate health care treatment, but not receiving either inadequate SMH or inadequate GM treatment.

Sociodemographics. A standard battery of sociodemographic variables (eg, age, sex, employment status, education, income) was administered to all respondents. In addition, sample information was linked to interview location records to classify each respondent by major census region (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), and by the Department of Agriculture's urban-rural continuum of counties (major metropolitan counties, other urbanized counties, and rural counties).

Interviewer Training and Field Quality Control

Professional lay interviewers from the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan administered the NCS-R. More than 300 interviewers participated in the study, each receiving 7 days of study-specific training and successfully completing 2 practice interviews before beginning production work. Interviews were administered using laptop computer–assisted software that included built-in skip logic, timing flags, and consistency checks. Regional supervisors recontacted a random 10% of respondents for quality control.

Five experienced clinical psychologists administered the clinical reappraisal SCID interviews. Each received 80 hours of training and successfully completed 2 practice interviews before beginning production work. Interviews were conducted by telephone and were tape recorded with the verbal permission of respondents. Interviewers wrote extensive notes to justify ratings. A clinical supervisor reviewed the notes and reviewed the tape recordings of the first 10 interviews for each interviewer plus other tape recordings as needed. The interviewer or supervisor recontacted the respondent to obtain additional information when there was ambiguity about ratings. Biweekly review meetings were used to prevent interviewer drift.

Statistical Analysis

Cross-tabulations were used to calculate prevalence, comorbidity, symptom severity, impairment, treatment, and treatment adequacy. The Kaplan-Meier method42 was used to generate age-at-onset curves. Logistic regression analysis43 was used to study demographic correlates of prevalence and treatment. The logistic regression coefficients were transformed to odds ratios (ORs) for ease of interpretation. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Taylor series linearization method implemented in the SUDAAN software package.44 Multivariate significance tests were calculated using Wald χ2 tests based on coefficient variance-covariance matrices that were adjusted for design effects using the Taylor series method. Statistical significance was based on 2-sided design-based tests evaluated at the .05 level of significance.

Prevalence of MDD

The prevalence estimates for CIDI/DSM-IV MDD in the total NCS-R sample were 16.2% (95% CI, 15.1-17.3) for lifetime and 6.6% (95% CI, 5.9-7.3) for the 12 months before the interview; the ratio of 12-month to lifetime prevalence was approximately 40%. These prevalences were equivalent to national population projections of 32.6 to 35.1 million US adults with lifetime MDD and 13.1 to 14.2 million with 12-month MDD.

Age-At-Onset of MDD

Kaplan-Meier curves for age-at-onset of MDD were generated separately for 4 groups of birth cohorts (Figure 1) and defined by age at interview (18-29, 30-44, 45-59, or ≥60 years). The curves are significantly different from each other (χ23 = 290.1, P <.001 for all). Risk is fairly low until the early teens, when it begins to rise in roughly linear fashion with an increasingly steep slope in successively more recent cohorts.

Figure. Cumulative Lifetime Prevalence of CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder by Birth Cohort
Graphic Jump Location
χ23 = 290.1, P<.001 for all. Analysis used weighted data.
Sociodemographic Correlates

Either lifetime MDD or 12-month MDD among lifetime cases was meaningfully elevated (ie, statistically significant at the .05 level with ORs ≥1.5) among respondents in the age range of 18 years to 59 years for lifetime or 18 years to 44 years for 12-month, and for women (lifetime only), homemakers (12-month only), respondents who were classified as "other" in employment status (consisting mainly of those who were unemployed or disabled), the never married (12-month only), the previously married (lifetime only), those with less than 12 years of education (12-month only), and those living in or near poverty (http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/01poverty.htm) (12-month only). (Table 3) Other employment status, being previously married, and low income also were associated with meaningfully elevated severe MDD (defined by the QIDS-SR) among 12-month cases. The prevalence of lifetime MDD was meaningfully lower (ie, statistically significant at the .05 level with ORs ≤0.67) among people who were retired and Non-Hispanic blacks than among comparison cases, while 12-month MDD was less likely to be clinically severe in the Northeast and Midwest than other regions of the country. Major depressive disorder was largely unrelated to geography (region of the country or urbanicity). Despite the large number of meaningful associations, only a few were strong (ie, ORs >3.0 or <0.33).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Bivariate Sociodemographic Correlates of 12-Month and Lifetime CIDI/DSM-IV for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R Sample
Comorbidity

Nearly three fourths (72.1%) of respondents with lifetime MDD also met the criteria for at least 1 of the other CIDI/DSM-IV disorders assessed in the NCS-R, including 59.2% with anxiety disorder, 24.0% with substance use disorder, and 30.0% with impulse control disorder. (Table 4) Approximately two thirds (64.0%) of respondents with 12-month MDD met the criteria for at least 1 other 12-month disorder, with anxiety disorders (57.5%) again more common than either substance use (8.5%) or impulse control (16.6%) disorders (Table 4). Comparison of age-at-onset reports (Table 4) shows MDD to be temporally primary to all other comorbid disorders among 12.3% of respondents with lifetime MDD and 12.6% of those with 12-month MDD. For lifetime and 12-month MDD, temporally prior MDD was much more common in relation to substance use disorders (41.3% and 49.2%) than either anxiety (13.7% and 14.6%) or impulse control (16.9% and 20.8%) disorders.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Comorbidity of CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorders With Other NCS-R Disorders in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R*
Role Impairment of 12-Month MDD

Nearly all (96.9%) respondents with 12-month MDD reported at least some role impairment associated with their depression in at least 1 of the 4 SDS role domains, with 87.4% describing this impairment as at least moderate, 59.3% as either severe or very severe, and 19.1% as very severe. (Table 5) Impairment was greatest in the social role domain (43.4% severe or very severe) and was least in the work role domain (28.1% severe or very severe).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Severity of Role Impairment by the Sheehan Disability Scale Associated With 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R Sample (n = 622)

Respondents with 12-month MDD reported a mean of 35.2 (95% CI, 26.8-43.6) days in the past year when they were totally unable to work or carry out their normal activities because of their depression. Overall SDS scores are significantly related (F4,617 = 17.1, P<.001) to days out of role (Table 5), from a high of 96.5 days among respondents who reported very severe role impairment to a low of zero among those who reported no role impairment.

Comparison of respondents with MDD vs those with no lifetime history of MDD on the WHO-DAS dimensions provides additional evidence of broad-based impairment associated with MDD (Table 6). Recent MDD (within 30 days of the interview) is associated with statistically significant impairments in all 6 WHO-DAS domains compared with respondents who never met criteria for MDD. These include impairments more than a full SD above the sample-wide mean in 30-day cognitive functioning and social functioning, more than 75% of an SD above the mean in days out of role and role functioning, more than 60% of an SD above the mean in mobility, and nearly 50% of an SD above the mean in self-care (all adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnic differences between respondents with and without MDD). These impairments appear to be state dependent, as the mean levels of impairment among respondents who had an episode of MDD earlier in the year are less strongly and consistently elevated (4 of the 6 WHO-DAS scores significantly elevated, with effect sizes 20%-45% of an SD about the mean), while respondents with a history of MDD who were not depressed in the past year have no significant elevations on any of the WHO-DAS dimensions.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 6. Thirty-Day Standardized Comparisons of Functional Impairment by the WHO-DAS Among Respondents With vs Without CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R*
Clinical Severity of 12-Month MDD

More than 99% of respondents with 12-month CIDI/DSM-IV MDD are independently classified by the QIDS-SR as having been clinically depressed during the worst month of the year, with 10.4% mild, 38.6% moderate, 38.0% severe, and 12.9% very severe (Table 7). Mild through severe cases as measured by QIDS-SR have mean durations of 13.8 to 16.6 weeks, while very severe cases have a mean duration of 23.1 weeks (Table 7). Symptom severity is strongly related both to role impairment and to comorbidity.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 7. Distributions and Correlates of Symptom Severity by Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report of 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R*
12-Month Treatment

An estimated 57.3% of respondents with 12-month MDD received some type of treatment in the 12 months before their interview (Table 8). The SMH sector was involved in the highest proportion of these cases (55.1% of treated cases) and the HS sector in the lowest proportion (16.0% of treated cases), with 90.0% of treated cases seen in the health care (HC) sectors (SMH, GM, or psychotropic medication use). Treatment met our criteria for being at least minimally adequate in 64.3% (95% CI, 55.4-73.1) of cases in SMH treatment, 41.3% (95% CI, 31.3-57.2) of cases in GM treatment, and 41.9% (95% CI, 35.9-47.9) in HC treatment (Table 8). Given that 51.6% (95% CI, 46.1-57.2) of cases received HC treatment for their depression, no more than 21.6% of all respondents with 12-month MDD (ie, 41.9% of the 51.6% in treatment) received adequate treatment in the year of the interview.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 8. Treatment in the Past 12 Months and Treatment Adequacy of 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder by Symptom Severity Assessed by Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R

Because there was overlap in sectors of treatment, we also compared respondents who received SMH, but not GM, treatment (n = 99), among whom 56.2% (95% CI, 43.7-68.7) received adequate treatment, with those who received GM, but not SMH, treatment (n = 74), among whom a significantly lower 9.6% (95% CI, 6.0-15.5) received adequate treatment (z = 6.3, P<.001).

Symptom severity is significantly related to 12-month treatment in both the SMH sector (χ23 = 13.4, P = .004) and the GM sector (χ23 = 8.1, P = .04), but not in either the HS sector (χ23 = 0.2, P = .97) or the CAM sector (χ23 = 2.6, P = .46). Symptom severity is also significantly related to patients in the SMH sector receiving adequate treatment (χ23 = 7.9, P = .048). Even so, fewer than half the respondents with 12-month very severe MDD (39.1%) and fewer than one fourth of those with 12-month severe MDD (24.6%) received adequate 12-month HC treatment for MDD.

In addition to symptom severity, other clinical correlates of treatment and treatment adequacy include role impairment, duration, proportional days out of role during depressive episodes, and psychiatric comorbidity (Table 9). Sociodemographic correlates of treatment adequacy also were examined (results not shown, but available on request from R.C.K.) using the same measures and procedures as in Table 3. None of these measures was significantly related to adequate treatment after adjusting statistically for clinical variables.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 9. Bivariate Clinical Predictors of 12-Month Treatment and Treatment Adequacy Among Respondents With 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R

The NCS-R MDD prevalence estimates are intermediate between the ECA and NCS estimates. Concordance between CIDI and clinical reappraisal diagnoses in the NCS-R is higher than in previous DIS and CIDI surveys.32,45 In addition, the QIDS-SR confirms more than 99% of 12-month CIDI MDD cases. This improved accuracy is presumably because of CIDI modifications in the NCS-R. The lower CIDI prevalence estimates than those in the NCS are consistent with the fact that these modifications operated largely by reducing false-positive assessments.

The ratio of 12-month CIDI MDD prevalence to lifetime prevalence being approximately 40% is broadly consistent with ratios between one third and one half in previous epidemiologic surveys.46,47 These ratios are consistent with both retrospective reports in cross-sectional community surveys7,11 and prospective assessments in a small number of community48,49 and clinical50 samples in suggesting that MDD is an episodically chronic recurrent disorder.51

The NCS-R age-at-onset results are consistent with previous surveys in finding that MDD has an early onset distribution.12,46,52 The strong MDD cohort effect in NCS-R also is consistent with previous surveys.13,46,53 Age-related differential recall, differential willingness to disclose, or other methodologic factors could play important parts in this pattern,54,55 although a genuine increase in the prevalence of MDD in recent cohorts might have occurred.56,57

The sociodemographic correlates of prevalence are for the most part consistent with those of previous epidemiologic studies,46,5866 as is the finding that MDD is comorbid with anxiety and substance use disorders.67,68 Although little epidemiologic evidence is available about comorbidity between depression and impulse control disorders among adults, significant comorbidity for MDD and impulse control disorder has been documented in clinical studies.69,70 Comorbid impulse control disorder is often thought to be more strongly related to bipolar than to unipolar depression.71 The NCS-R MDD impulse control disorder comorbidity could reflect broader factors or the existence of what has recently been called a "soft bipolar spectrum" in which comorbid impulse control disorder among patients with MDD represents a marker of bipolar susceptibility.72

The finding that comorbid anxiety disorders typically have an earlier age of onset than does MDD is consistent with previous epidemiologic research46 as well as with prospective family studies of at-risk children.73 The finding that the same is true for comorbid impulse control disorder has not, to our knowledge, been examined in previous epidemiologic studies of adults, although the evidence on this point is mixed in studies of children and adolescents.74

The results regarding MDD impairment are consistent with other evidence that MDD is a seriously impairing condition.75 The 35.1 mean days out of role because of MDD is striking in comparison with recent results from another national survey in which mean time out of role was less than 15 days for most chronic conditions.76

The QIDS-SR symptom severity results speak directly to the concern that prevalence estimates in community surveys might be upwardly biased due to the inclusion of clinically insignificant cases.29 This concern is clearly misplaced with respect to MDD, as close to 90% of 12-month CIDI cases are classified as moderate, severe, or very severe using standard HRSD symptom severity thresholds.

The 57.3% of 12-month MDD cases who received treatment in the past year, when multiplied by the estimated 12-month prevalence of MDD, represents 3.7% of the population. This is a meaningful increase over the 2.1% in the ECA in the early 1980s and the 2.7% in the NCS in 1990-1991.14,16 The ratio of NCS-R to ECA percentages (3.7:2.1) represents a 37% increase in MDD treatment. This large increase is consistent with trend data from the National Medical Expenditures Survey for changes between 1987 and 1997.18

The NCS-R results are less positive with regard to treatment adequacy, implying a need for treatment quality improvement.77 This improvement will require both a redirection of patient help-seeking to sectors where guideline-concordant care can be provided and an increase in the implementation of evidence-based treatment recommendations by health care providers.40,41 The growing number of cost-effective depression disease management programs24,26,78 represent feasible opportunities for promoting quality improvement. However, implementation of established performance standard79 and report card80 monitoring systems also are needed for quality assurance.

Comstock GW, Helsing KJ. Symptoms of depression in two communities.  Psychol Med.1976;6:551-563.
PubMed
Helgason T. Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland.  Acta Psychiatr Scand.1964;40:115-132.
Lin TY. A study of incidence of mental disorders in Chinese and other cultures.  Psychiatry.1953;16:315-335.
Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan JL, Ratcliff KS. National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1981;38:381-389.
PubMed
Robins LN, Regier DA. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area StudyNew York, NY: The Free Press; 1991.
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition: DSM-III1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.
Weissman MM, Livingston Bruce M, Leaf PJ, Florio LP, Holzer CI. Affective disorders. In: Robins LN, Regier DA, eds. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York, NY: The Free Press; 1991:53-80.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S.  et al.  Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1994;51:8-19.
PubMed
Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen H-U.  et al.  The Composite International Diagnostic Interview.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1988;45:1069-1077.
PubMed
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition—Revised): DSM-III-RWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.
Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, Liu J, Swartz M, Blazer DG. Comorbidity of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in the general population.  Br J Psychiatry.1996;168:17-30.
Christie KA, Burke JDJ, Regier DA, Rae DS, Boyd JH, Locke BZ. Epidemiologic evidence for early onset of mental disorders and higher risk of drug-abuse in young-adults.  Am J Psychiatry.1988;145:971-975.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Magee WJ. Childhood adversities and adult depression.  Psychol Med.1993;23:679-690.
PubMed
Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS.  et al.  Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse.  JAMA.1990;264:2511-2518.
Regier DA, Kaelber CT, Rae DS.  et al.  Limitations of diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments for mental disorders: implications for research and policy.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1998;55:109-115.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Zhao S, Katz SJ.  et al.  Past-year use of outpatient services for psychiatric problems in the National Comorbidity Survey.  Am J Psychiatry.1999;156:115-123.
PubMed
Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS, Manderscheid RW, Locke BZ, Goodwin FK. The de facto US Mental and Addictive Disorders Service System.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1993;50:85-94.
PubMed
Olfson M, Marcus SC, Druss B, Elinson L, Tanielian T, Pincus HA. National trends in the outpatient treatment of depression.  JAMA.2002;287:203-209.
PubMed
Hirschfeld RMA, Keller MB, Panico S.  et al.  The National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression.  JAMA.1997;277:333-340.
PubMed
Regier DA, Hirschfeld RMA, Goodwin FK, Burke JD, Lazar JB, Judd LL. The NIMH Depression, Awareness, Recognition and Treatment Program.  Am J Psychiatry.1988;145:1351-1357.
PubMed
Wells KB, Stewart A, Hays RD.  et al.  The functioning and well-being of depressed patients.  JAMA.1989;262:914-919.
PubMed
Kouzis AC, Eaton WW. Emotional disability days: prevalence and predictors.  Am J Public Health.1994;84:1304-1307.
PubMed
World Health Organization.  The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy LifeGeneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E.  et al.  Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines.  JAMA.1995;273:1026-1031.
PubMed
Wells KB, Sherbourne C, Schoenbaum M.  et al.  Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care.  JAMA.2000;283:212-220.
PubMed
Schoenbaum M, Unutzer J, Sherbourne C.  et al.  Cost-effectiveness of practice-initiated quality improvement for depression.  JAMA.2001;286:1325-1330.
PubMed
Pincus HA, Hough L, Houtsinger JK, Rollman BL, Frank RG. Emerging models of depression care.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:54-63.
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth EditionWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
Narrow WE, Rae DS, Robins LN, Regier DA. Revised prevalence estimates of mental disorders in the United States.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.2002;59:115-123.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Merikangas KR, Berglund P, Eaton WW, Koretz D, Walters EE. Should mild disorders be eliminated from DSM-V? In press.
Kessler RC, Walters EE. The National Comorbidity Survey. In: Tsaung MT, Tohen M, eds. Textbook in Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2002:343-362.
Kessler RC, Wittchen H-U, Abelson JM.  et al.  Methodological studies of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in the US National Comorbidity Survey.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.1998;7:33-55.
First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP)New York, NY: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1997.
Leon AC, Olfson M, Portera L, Farber L, Sheehan DV. Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale.  Int J Psychiatry Med.1997;27:93-105.
PubMed
Rehm J, Ustun TB, Saxena S.  et al.  On the development and psychometric testing of the WHO screening instrument to assess disablement in the general population.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.1999;8:110-123.
Rush AJ, Carmody T, Reimitz P-E. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2000;9:45-59.
Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Basco MR, Jarrett RB, Trivedi MH. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).  Psychol Med.1996;26:477-486.
PubMed
Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression.  J Neurol Neurosur Psychiatry.1960;23.
Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Ibrahim HM.  et al.  The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) Clinician Rating (QIDS-C) and Self-Report (QIDS-SR).  Biol Psychiatry.In press.
American Psychiatric Association.  Practice Guideline for Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Second EdWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 2000.
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.  Depression in Primary Care: Vol 2: Treatment of Major DepressionRockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1993.
Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations.  J Am Stat Assoc.1958;53:457-481.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic RegressionNew York, NY: Wiley & Sons; 1989.
Research Triangle Institute.  Sudaan Release 8.0.1, January 2002Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2002.
Wittchen H-U. Reliability and validity studies of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).  J Psychiatr Res.1994;28:57-84.
PubMed
Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P.  et al.  The epidemiology of major depressive episodes.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:3-21.
Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ.  et al.  Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder.  JAMA.1996;276:293-299.
PubMed
Angst J, Merikangas K. The depressive spectrum: diagnostic classification and course.  J Affect Disord.1997;45:31-39.
PubMed
Murphy JM, Sobol AM, Neff RK, Olivier DC, Leighton AH. Stability of prevalence.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1984;41:990-997.
PubMed
Keller MB. Chronic and recurrent affective disorders: incidence, course and influencing factors. In: Kemali D, Racagni G, eds. Chronic Treatments in Neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1985.
US Department of Health and Human Services.  Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health; 1999.
Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle K, Swartz M. The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample.  Am J Psychiatry.1994;151:979-986.
PubMed
Cross-National Collaborative Group.  The changing rate of major depression.  JAMA.1992;268:3098-3105.
PubMed
Giuffra LA, Risch N. Diminished recall and the cohort effect of major depression.  Psychol Med.1994;24:375-383.
PubMed
Simon GE, Von Korff M. Recall of psychiatric history in cross-sectional surveys.  Epidemiol Rev.1995;17:221-227.
PubMed
Kessler RC. Gender differences in major depression: epidemiologic findings. In: Frank E, ed. Gender and Its Effect on Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 2000:61-84.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Swartz M, Blazer DG. Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey II.  J Affect Disord.1994;30:15-26.
PubMed
Bland RC, Orn H, Newman SC. Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton.  Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl.1988;77(suppl 338):24-32.
Canino GJ, Bird HR, Shrout PE.  et al.  The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in Puerto Rico.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1987;44:727-735.
PubMed
Hwu HG, Yeh EK, Cheng LY. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Taiwan defined by the Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule.  Acta Psychiatr Scand.1989;79:136-147.
PubMed
Lee CK, Kwak YS, Yamamoto J.  et al.  Psychiatric epidemiology in Korea: part I.  J Nerv Ment Dis.1990;178:242-246.
Lépine JP, Lellouch J, Lovell A.  et al.  Anxiety and depressive disorders in a French population.  Psychiatr Psychobiol.1989;4:267-274.
Wittchen H-U, Essau CA, von Zerssen D, Krieg CJ, Zaudig M. Lifetime and six-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Munich Follow-up Study.  Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.1992;241:247-258.
PubMed
Wells JE, Bushnell JA, Hornblow AR, Joyce PR, Oakley-Browne MA. Christchurch Psychiatric Epidemiology Study, part I.  Aust N Z J Psychiatry.1989;23:315-326.
PubMed
Bland RC, Newman SC, Orn H. Period prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton.  Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl.1988;77(suppl 338):33-42.
Weissman MM, Meyers JK. Affective disorders in a US urban community.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1978;35:1304-1311.
PubMed
Merikangas KR, Angst J, Eaton WW.  et al.  Comorbidity and boundaries of affective disorders with anxiety disorders and substance misuse.  Br J Psychiatry.1996;168:58-67.
Kessler RC. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity. In: Wetzler S, Sanderson WC, eds. Treatment Strategies for Patients With Psychiatric Comorbidity. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1997.
Lejoyeux M, Arbaretaz M, McLoughlin M, Ades J. Impulse control disorders and depression.  J Nerv Ment Dis.2002;190:310-314.
Zimmerman M, Chelminski I, McDermut W. Major depressive disorder and axis I diagnostic comorbidity.  J Clin Psychiatry.2002;63:187-193.
McElroy SL, Pope HG, Keck Jr PE, Hudson JI, Phillips KA, Strakowski SM. Are impulse-control disorders related to bipolar disorder?  Compr Psychiatry.1996;37:229-240.
Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Lattanzi L.  et al.  The high prevalence of "soft" bipolar (II) features in atypical depression.  Compr Psychiatry.1998;39:63-71.
PubMed
Warner V, Weeisman MM, Mufson L, Wickramaratne PJ. Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression.  J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.1999;38:289-296.
PubMed
Loeber R, Farrington DP, Stouthamer-Loeber M, Van Kammen WB. Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and AdolescenceMahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.
Wang PS, Simon GE, Kessler RC. The economic burden of depression and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:22-33.
Kessler RC, Greenberg PE, Mickelson KD, Meneades LM, Wang PS. The effects of chronic medical conditions on work loss and work cutback.  J Occup Environ Med.2001;43:218-225.
PubMed
Valenstein M, Vijan S, Zeber JE, Boehm K, Buttar A. The cost utility of screening for depression in primary care.  Ann Intern Med.2001;134:345-360.
PubMed
Katon W, Robinson P, VonKorff M.  et al.  A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1996;53:924-932.
PubMed
National Committee for Quality Assurance.  HEDIS 3.0: Narrative: What's in It and Why It MattersWashington, DC: National Committee for Quality Assurance; 1997.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.  Consumer-Oriented Mental Health Report CardRockville, Md: Center for Mental Health Services, SAMSHA; 1996.

Figures

Figure. Cumulative Lifetime Prevalence of CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder by Birth Cohort
Graphic Jump Location
χ23 = 290.1, P<.001 for all. Analysis used weighted data.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Sociodemographic Distribution of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) Sample Compared With the US Population
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Correspondence Between Diagnoses of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R (CIDI) Sample and the Weighted Clinical Reinterview Samples (SCID)
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Bivariate Sociodemographic Correlates of 12-Month and Lifetime CIDI/DSM-IV for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R Sample
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Comorbidity of CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorders With Other NCS-R Disorders in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Severity of Role Impairment by the Sheehan Disability Scale Associated With 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R Sample (n = 622)
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 6. Thirty-Day Standardized Comparisons of Functional Impairment by the WHO-DAS Among Respondents With vs Without CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 7. Distributions and Correlates of Symptom Severity by Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report of 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 8. Treatment in the Past 12 Months and Treatment Adequacy of 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder by Symptom Severity Assessed by Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report in the Weighted Part 2 NCS-R
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 9. Bivariate Clinical Predictors of 12-Month Treatment and Treatment Adequacy Among Respondents With 12-Month CIDI/DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder in the Weighted Part 1 NCS-R

References

Comstock GW, Helsing KJ. Symptoms of depression in two communities.  Psychol Med.1976;6:551-563.
PubMed
Helgason T. Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland.  Acta Psychiatr Scand.1964;40:115-132.
Lin TY. A study of incidence of mental disorders in Chinese and other cultures.  Psychiatry.1953;16:315-335.
Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan JL, Ratcliff KS. National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1981;38:381-389.
PubMed
Robins LN, Regier DA. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area StudyNew York, NY: The Free Press; 1991.
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition: DSM-III1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.
Weissman MM, Livingston Bruce M, Leaf PJ, Florio LP, Holzer CI. Affective disorders. In: Robins LN, Regier DA, eds. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York, NY: The Free Press; 1991:53-80.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S.  et al.  Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1994;51:8-19.
PubMed
Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen H-U.  et al.  The Composite International Diagnostic Interview.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1988;45:1069-1077.
PubMed
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition—Revised): DSM-III-RWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.
Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, Liu J, Swartz M, Blazer DG. Comorbidity of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in the general population.  Br J Psychiatry.1996;168:17-30.
Christie KA, Burke JDJ, Regier DA, Rae DS, Boyd JH, Locke BZ. Epidemiologic evidence for early onset of mental disorders and higher risk of drug-abuse in young-adults.  Am J Psychiatry.1988;145:971-975.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Magee WJ. Childhood adversities and adult depression.  Psychol Med.1993;23:679-690.
PubMed
Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS.  et al.  Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse.  JAMA.1990;264:2511-2518.
Regier DA, Kaelber CT, Rae DS.  et al.  Limitations of diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments for mental disorders: implications for research and policy.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1998;55:109-115.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Zhao S, Katz SJ.  et al.  Past-year use of outpatient services for psychiatric problems in the National Comorbidity Survey.  Am J Psychiatry.1999;156:115-123.
PubMed
Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS, Manderscheid RW, Locke BZ, Goodwin FK. The de facto US Mental and Addictive Disorders Service System.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1993;50:85-94.
PubMed
Olfson M, Marcus SC, Druss B, Elinson L, Tanielian T, Pincus HA. National trends in the outpatient treatment of depression.  JAMA.2002;287:203-209.
PubMed
Hirschfeld RMA, Keller MB, Panico S.  et al.  The National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression.  JAMA.1997;277:333-340.
PubMed
Regier DA, Hirschfeld RMA, Goodwin FK, Burke JD, Lazar JB, Judd LL. The NIMH Depression, Awareness, Recognition and Treatment Program.  Am J Psychiatry.1988;145:1351-1357.
PubMed
Wells KB, Stewart A, Hays RD.  et al.  The functioning and well-being of depressed patients.  JAMA.1989;262:914-919.
PubMed
Kouzis AC, Eaton WW. Emotional disability days: prevalence and predictors.  Am J Public Health.1994;84:1304-1307.
PubMed
World Health Organization.  The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy LifeGeneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E.  et al.  Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines.  JAMA.1995;273:1026-1031.
PubMed
Wells KB, Sherbourne C, Schoenbaum M.  et al.  Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care.  JAMA.2000;283:212-220.
PubMed
Schoenbaum M, Unutzer J, Sherbourne C.  et al.  Cost-effectiveness of practice-initiated quality improvement for depression.  JAMA.2001;286:1325-1330.
PubMed
Pincus HA, Hough L, Houtsinger JK, Rollman BL, Frank RG. Emerging models of depression care.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:54-63.
American Psychiatric Association.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth EditionWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
Narrow WE, Rae DS, Robins LN, Regier DA. Revised prevalence estimates of mental disorders in the United States.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.2002;59:115-123.
PubMed
Kessler RC, Merikangas KR, Berglund P, Eaton WW, Koretz D, Walters EE. Should mild disorders be eliminated from DSM-V? In press.
Kessler RC, Walters EE. The National Comorbidity Survey. In: Tsaung MT, Tohen M, eds. Textbook in Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2002:343-362.
Kessler RC, Wittchen H-U, Abelson JM.  et al.  Methodological studies of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in the US National Comorbidity Survey.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.1998;7:33-55.
First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP)New York, NY: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1997.
Leon AC, Olfson M, Portera L, Farber L, Sheehan DV. Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale.  Int J Psychiatry Med.1997;27:93-105.
PubMed
Rehm J, Ustun TB, Saxena S.  et al.  On the development and psychometric testing of the WHO screening instrument to assess disablement in the general population.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.1999;8:110-123.
Rush AJ, Carmody T, Reimitz P-E. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2000;9:45-59.
Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Basco MR, Jarrett RB, Trivedi MH. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS).  Psychol Med.1996;26:477-486.
PubMed
Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression.  J Neurol Neurosur Psychiatry.1960;23.
Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Ibrahim HM.  et al.  The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) Clinician Rating (QIDS-C) and Self-Report (QIDS-SR).  Biol Psychiatry.In press.
American Psychiatric Association.  Practice Guideline for Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Second EdWashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 2000.
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.  Depression in Primary Care: Vol 2: Treatment of Major DepressionRockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1993.
Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations.  J Am Stat Assoc.1958;53:457-481.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic RegressionNew York, NY: Wiley & Sons; 1989.
Research Triangle Institute.  Sudaan Release 8.0.1, January 2002Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2002.
Wittchen H-U. Reliability and validity studies of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).  J Psychiatr Res.1994;28:57-84.
PubMed
Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P.  et al.  The epidemiology of major depressive episodes.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:3-21.
Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ.  et al.  Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder.  JAMA.1996;276:293-299.
PubMed
Angst J, Merikangas K. The depressive spectrum: diagnostic classification and course.  J Affect Disord.1997;45:31-39.
PubMed
Murphy JM, Sobol AM, Neff RK, Olivier DC, Leighton AH. Stability of prevalence.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1984;41:990-997.
PubMed
Keller MB. Chronic and recurrent affective disorders: incidence, course and influencing factors. In: Kemali D, Racagni G, eds. Chronic Treatments in Neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1985.
US Department of Health and Human Services.  Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health; 1999.
Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle K, Swartz M. The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample.  Am J Psychiatry.1994;151:979-986.
PubMed
Cross-National Collaborative Group.  The changing rate of major depression.  JAMA.1992;268:3098-3105.
PubMed
Giuffra LA, Risch N. Diminished recall and the cohort effect of major depression.  Psychol Med.1994;24:375-383.
PubMed
Simon GE, Von Korff M. Recall of psychiatric history in cross-sectional surveys.  Epidemiol Rev.1995;17:221-227.
PubMed
Kessler RC. Gender differences in major depression: epidemiologic findings. In: Frank E, ed. Gender and Its Effect on Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 2000:61-84.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Swartz M, Blazer DG. Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey II.  J Affect Disord.1994;30:15-26.
PubMed
Bland RC, Orn H, Newman SC. Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton.  Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl.1988;77(suppl 338):24-32.
Canino GJ, Bird HR, Shrout PE.  et al.  The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in Puerto Rico.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1987;44:727-735.
PubMed
Hwu HG, Yeh EK, Cheng LY. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Taiwan defined by the Chinese Diagnostic Interview Schedule.  Acta Psychiatr Scand.1989;79:136-147.
PubMed
Lee CK, Kwak YS, Yamamoto J.  et al.  Psychiatric epidemiology in Korea: part I.  J Nerv Ment Dis.1990;178:242-246.
Lépine JP, Lellouch J, Lovell A.  et al.  Anxiety and depressive disorders in a French population.  Psychiatr Psychobiol.1989;4:267-274.
Wittchen H-U, Essau CA, von Zerssen D, Krieg CJ, Zaudig M. Lifetime and six-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Munich Follow-up Study.  Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.1992;241:247-258.
PubMed
Wells JE, Bushnell JA, Hornblow AR, Joyce PR, Oakley-Browne MA. Christchurch Psychiatric Epidemiology Study, part I.  Aust N Z J Psychiatry.1989;23:315-326.
PubMed
Bland RC, Newman SC, Orn H. Period prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Edmonton.  Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl.1988;77(suppl 338):33-42.
Weissman MM, Meyers JK. Affective disorders in a US urban community.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1978;35:1304-1311.
PubMed
Merikangas KR, Angst J, Eaton WW.  et al.  Comorbidity and boundaries of affective disorders with anxiety disorders and substance misuse.  Br J Psychiatry.1996;168:58-67.
Kessler RC. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity. In: Wetzler S, Sanderson WC, eds. Treatment Strategies for Patients With Psychiatric Comorbidity. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1997.
Lejoyeux M, Arbaretaz M, McLoughlin M, Ades J. Impulse control disorders and depression.  J Nerv Ment Dis.2002;190:310-314.
Zimmerman M, Chelminski I, McDermut W. Major depressive disorder and axis I diagnostic comorbidity.  J Clin Psychiatry.2002;63:187-193.
McElroy SL, Pope HG, Keck Jr PE, Hudson JI, Phillips KA, Strakowski SM. Are impulse-control disorders related to bipolar disorder?  Compr Psychiatry.1996;37:229-240.
Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Lattanzi L.  et al.  The high prevalence of "soft" bipolar (II) features in atypical depression.  Compr Psychiatry.1998;39:63-71.
PubMed
Warner V, Weeisman MM, Mufson L, Wickramaratne PJ. Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression.  J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.1999;38:289-296.
PubMed
Loeber R, Farrington DP, Stouthamer-Loeber M, Van Kammen WB. Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and AdolescenceMahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.
Wang PS, Simon GE, Kessler RC. The economic burden of depression and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.  Int J Methods Psychiatr Res.2003;12:22-33.
Kessler RC, Greenberg PE, Mickelson KD, Meneades LM, Wang PS. The effects of chronic medical conditions on work loss and work cutback.  J Occup Environ Med.2001;43:218-225.
PubMed
Valenstein M, Vijan S, Zeber JE, Boehm K, Buttar A. The cost utility of screening for depression in primary care.  Ann Intern Med.2001;134:345-360.
PubMed
Katon W, Robinson P, VonKorff M.  et al.  A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care.  Arch Gen Psychiatry.1996;53:924-932.
PubMed
National Committee for Quality Assurance.  HEDIS 3.0: Narrative: What's in It and Why It MattersWashington, DC: National Committee for Quality Assurance; 1997.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.  Consumer-Oriented Mental Health Report CardRockville, Md: Center for Mental Health Services, SAMSHA; 1996.
CME
Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
JAMAevidence.com

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature
Comorbidity


Comorbidity