The issue of routine vs selective intraoperative cholangiography (IOC)
during cholecystectomy has been controversial for decades.1 During
the era of open cholecystectomy, a policy of performing selective IOC during
cholecystectomy had largely become accepted based on criteria regarding preoperative
and operative clinical findings.2 The advent
of safe and effective endoscopic-retrograde cholangiopancreatography and its
ability to help the surgeon detect and treat common bile duct (CBD) stones
was beginning to change the practice of IOC when laparoscopic cholecystectomy
transformed the field of biliary tract surgery.3 Prior
to the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, some surgeons recommended routine
use of IOC,4 but the common practice among
surgeons was selective use of IOC.5 When laparoscopic
cholecystectomy emerged, this debate was re-energized.6,7
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Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
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The Rational Clinical Examination
Although the existing literature does not identify specific clinically useful combinations of...
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