United States Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.
Winawer SJ, Fletcher RH, Miller L.
et al. Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale. Gastroenterology.1997;112:594-642.
Rex DK, Johnson DA, Lieberman DA, Burt RW, Sonnenberg A. Colorectal cancer prevention 2000: screening recommendations of the
American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol.2000;95:868-877.
Pignone M, Rich M, Teutsch SM, Berg AO, Lohr KN. Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary
of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med.2002;137:132-141.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med.2002;137:129-131.
Smith RA, von Eschenbach AC, Wender R.
et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer:
update of early detection guidelines for prostate, colorectal, and endometrial
cancers; also: update 2001—testing for early lung cancer detection. CA Cancer J Clin.2001;51:38-75; quiz 77-80.
Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, Larkin GN, Rogge JD, Ransohoff DF. Results of screening colonoscopy among persons 40 to 49 years of age. N Engl J Med.2002;346:1781-1785.
Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR.
et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult
blood: Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study. N Engl J Med.1993;328:1365-1371.
Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomized study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood
Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MH.
et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal
Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN.
et al. Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy: the National
Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med.1993;329:1977-1981.
Citarda F, Tomaselli G, Capocaccia R, Barcherini S, Crespi M. Efficacy in standard clinical practice of colonoscopic polypectomy
in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Gut.2001;48:812-815.
Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, Ahnan DJ, Garewil H, Cheifec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer:
Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 380. N Engl J Med.2000;343:162-168.
Atkin WS, Hart A, Edwards R.
et al. Uptake, yield of neoplasia, and adverse effects of flexible sigmoidoscopy
Atkin WS, Edwards R, Wardle J, Northover JM, Cuzick J. UK flexible sigmoidoscopy screening trial: compliance, yield and adverse
events [abstract]. Gastroenterology.2000;118:A187.
Anderson ML, Pasha TM, Leighton JA. Endoscopic perforation of the colon: lessons for a 10-year study. Am J Gastroenterol.2000;95:3418-3422.
Single flexible sigmoidoscopy screening to prevent colorectal cancer:
baseline findings of a UK multicentre randomised trial. Lancet.2002;359:1291-1300.
Nelson DB, McQuaid KR, Bond JH, Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Johnston TK. Procedural success and complications of large-scale screening colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc.2002;55:307-314.
Dominitz JA, Provenzale D. Patient preferences and quality of life associated with colorectal
cancer screening. Am J Gastroenterol.1997;92:2171-2178.
Lieberman DA, Weiss DG. One-time screening for colorectal cancer with combined fecal occult-blood
testing and examination of the distal colon. N Engl J Med.2001;345:555-560.
Rex DK, Lieberman DA. Feasibility of colonoscopy screening: discussion of issues and recommendations
regarding implementation. Gastrointest Endosc.2001;54:662-667.
Johns LE, Houlston RS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial colorectal cancer
risk. Am J Gastroenterol.2001;96:2992-3003.
Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of family history and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med.1994;331:1669-1674.
Herrinton LJ, Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CP, Weiss NS. Case-control study of digital-rectal screening in relation to mortality
from cancer of the distal rectum. Am J Epidemiol.1995;142:961-964.
Eisner MS, Lewis JH. Diagnostic yield of a positive fecal occult blood test found on digital
rectal examination: does the finger count? Arch Intern Med.1991;151:2180-2184.
Bini EJ, Rajapaksa RC, Weinshel EH. The findings and impact of nonrehydrated guaiac examination of the
rectum (FINGER) study: a comparison of 2 methods of screening for colorectal
cancer in asymptomatic average-risk patients. Arch Intern Med.1999;159:2022-2026.
Burke CA, Tadikonda L, Machicao V. Fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening: use the
finger. Am J Gastroenterol.2001;96:3175-3177.
American College of Physicians: suggested technique for fecal occult
blood testing and interpretation in colorectal cancer screening. Ann Intern Med.1997;126:808-810.
Ransohoff DF, Lang CA.and American College of Physicians. Screening for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test: a
background paper. Ann Intern Med.1997;126:811-822.
Yamamoto M, Nakama H. Cost-effectiveness analysis of immunochemical occult blood screening
for colorectal cancer among three fecal sampling methods. Hepatogastroenterology.2000;47:396-399.
Trends in screening for colorectal cancer—United States, 1997
and 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2000;50:162-166.
Weitzman ER, Zapka J, Estabrook B, Goins KV. Risk and reluctance: understanding impediments to colorectal cancer
screening. Prev Med.2001;32:502-513.
Beeker C, Kraft JM, Southwell BG, Jorgensen CM. Colorectal cancer screening in older men and women: qualitative research
findings and implications for intervention. J Community Health.2000;25:263-278.
DiPalma AM, Barnes SE, DiPalma JA. Patient participation in colon cancer screening programs. South Med J.1998;91:342-344.
Bejes C, Marvel MK. Attempting the improbable: offering colorectal cancer screening to
all appropriate patients. Fam Pract Res J.1992;12:83-90.
Neale AV, Demers RY, Herman S. Compliance with colorectal cancer screening in a high-risk occupational
group. J Occup Med.1989;31:1007-1012.
Olynyk JK, Aquilia S, Fletcher DR, Dickinson JA. Flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer in average-risk
subjects: a community-based pilot project. Med J Aust.1996;165:74-76.
Vernon SW, Acquavella JF, Yarborough CM, Hughes JI, Thar WE. Reasons for participation and nonparticipation in a colorectal cancer
screening program for a cohort of high risk polypropylene workers. J Occup Med.1990;32:46-51.
Vernon S, Gilstrap E, Jackson G, Hughes J. An intervention to increase participation in a work site cancer screening
program. Health Values.1992;16:3-9.
Brenes GA, Pakett ED. Predictors of stage of adoption for colorectal cancer screening. Prev Med.2000;31:410-416.
Lipkus IM, Rimer BK, Lyna PR.
et al. Colorectal cancer screening patterns and perceptions of risk among
African-American users of a community health center. J Community Health.1996;21:409-427.
Ellerbeck EF, Engelman KK, Gladden J, Mosier MC, Raju GS, Ahluwalia JS. Direct observation of counseling on colorectal cancer in rural primary
care practices. J Gen Intern Med.2001;16:697-700.
Ling BS, Moskowitz MA, Wachs D, Pearson B, Schroy PC. Attitudes toward colorectal cancer screening tests: a survey of patients
and physicians. J Gen Intern Med.2001;16:822-830.
Lemon S, Zapka J, Puleo E, Luckmann R, Chasan-Taber L. Colorectal cancer screening participation: comparisons with mammography
and prostate-specific antigen screening. Am J Public Health.2001;91:1264-1272.
Walsh JME, Posner FP, Perez-Stable EJ. Colon cancer screening in the ambulatory setting. Prev Med.2002;35:209-218.
Pignone M, Harris R, Kinsinger L. Videotape-based decision aid for colon cancer screening: a randomized,
controlled trial. Ann Intern Med.2000;133:761-769.
Soumerai SB, Avorn J. Principles of educational outreach ("academic detailing") to improve
clinical decision making. JAMA.1990;263:549-556.
Schroy PC, Heeren T, Bliss CM, Pincus J, Wilson S, Prout M. Implementation of on-site screening sigmoidoscopy positively influences
utilization by primary care providers. Gastroenterology.1999;117:304-311.
Struewing JP, Pape DM, Snow DA. Improving colorectal cancer screening in a medical residents' primary
care clinic. Am J Prev Med.1991;7:75-81.
Kelly RB, Shank JC. Adherence to screening flexible sigmoidoscopy in asymptomatic patients. Med Care.1992;30:1029-1042.
Elwood TW, Erickson A, Lieberman S. Comparative educational approaches to screening for colorectal cancer. Am J Public Health.1978;68:135-138.
Hardcastle JD, Armitage NC, Chamberlain J, Amar SS, James PD, Balfour TW. Fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer in the general population:
results of a controlled trial. Cancer.1986;58:397-403.
Hardcastle JD, Farrands PA, Balfour TW, Chamberlain J, Amar SS, Sheldon MG. Controlled trial of faecal occult blood testing in the detection of
colorectal cancer. Lancet.1983;2:1-4.
King J, Fairbrother G, Thompson C, Morris DL. Colorectal cancer screening: optimal compliance with postal faecal
occult blood test. Aust N Z J Surg.1992;62:714-719.
Lallemand RC, Vakil PA, Pearson P, Box V. Screening for asymptomatic bowel cancer in general practice. BMJ.1984;288:31-33.
Lee CY. A randomized controlled trial to motivate worksite fecal occult blood
testing. Yonsei Med J.1991;32:131-138.
Lee FI. Screening for colorectal cancer in a factory-based population with
Fecatest. Br J Cancer.1983;48:843-847.
Mant D, Fuller A, Northover J.
et al. Patient compliance with colorectal cancer screening in general practice. Br J Gen Pract.1992;42:18-20.
Myers RE, Ross EA, Wolf TA, Balshem A, Jepson C, Millner L. Behavioral interventions to increase adherence in colorectal cancer
screening. Med Care.1991;29:1039-1050.
Myers RE, Ross E, Jepson C.
et al. Modeling adherence to colorectal cancer screening. Prev Med.1994;23:142-151.
Nichols S, Koch E, Lallemand RC.
et al. Randomised trial of compliance with screening for colorectal cancer. BMJ.1986;293:107-110.
Plaskon PP, Fadden MJ. Cancer screening utilization: is there a role for social work in cancer
prevention? Soc Work Health Care.1995;21:59-70.
Pye G, Christie M, Chamberlain JO, Moss SM, Hardcastle JD. A comparison of methods for increasing compliance within a general
practitioner based screening project for colorectal cancer and the effect
on practitioner workload. J Epidemiol Community Health.1988;42:66-71.
Slater PE, Fich A, Zimmerman J, Ever-Hadani P, Rachmilewitz D. Recruitment of subjects for fecal occult blood screening: a comparison
of two methods in Jerusalem. J Clin Gastroenterol.1985;7:51-54.
Sontag SJ, Durczak C, Aranha GV, Chejfec G, Frederick W, Greenlee HB. Fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer in a Veterans Administration
Hospital. Am J Surg.1983;145:89-94.
Thompson RS, Michnich ME, Gray J, Friedlander L, Gilson B. Maximizing compliance with hemoccult screening for colon cancer in
clinical practice. Med Care.1986;24:904-914.
Weinrich SP, Weinrich MC, Stromborg MF, Boyd MD, Weiss HL. Using elderly educators to increase colorectal cancer screening. Gerontologist.1993;33:491-496.
Bell CM, Crystal M, Detsky AS, Redelmeier DA. Shopping around for hospital services: a comparison of the United States
and Canada. JAMA.1998;279:1015-1017.
Detsky AS. Screening for colon cancer—can we afford colonoscopy? N Engl J Med.2001;345:607-608.
Frazier AL, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS, Kuntz KM. Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in the general
Sonnenberg A, Delco F, Inadomi JM. Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med.2000;133:573-584.
Wagner J, Tunis S, Brown M, Ching A, Almeida R. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults. In: Young G, Rozen P, Levin B, eds. Prevention
and Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer. London, England: WB Saunders
Khandker RK, Dulski JD, Kilpatrick JB, Ellis RP, Mitchell JB, Baine WB. A decision model and cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer
screening and surveillance guidelines for average-risk adults. Int J Technol Assess Health Care.2000;16:799-810.
Vijan S, Hwang EW, Hofer TP, Hayward RA. Which colon cancer screening test? a comparison of costs, effectiveness,
and compliance. Am J Med.2001;111:593-601.
Loeve F, Brown ML, Boer R, van Ballegooijen M, van Oortmarssen GJ, Habbema JD. Endoscopic colorectal cancer screening: a cost-saving analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst.2000;92:557-562.
Sonnenberg A, Delco F. Cost-effectiveness of a single colonscopy in screening for colorectal
cancer: recommendations and rationale. Arch Intern Med.2002;162:163-168.
Ness RM, Holmes AM, Klein R, Dittus R. Cost-utility of one-time colonoscopic screening for colorectal cancer
at various ages. Am J Gastroenterol.2000;95:1800-1811.
Tengs TO, Adams ME, Pliskin JS.
et al. Five-hundred life-saving interventions and their cost-effectiveness. Risk Anal.1995;15:369-390.