Halpern NA, Bettes L, Greenstein R. Federal and nationwide intensive care units and healthcare costs: 1986-1992. Crit Care Med.1994;22:2001-2007.
Pronovost PJ, Jencks M, Dorman T.
et al. Organizational characteristics of intensive care units related to outcomes
of abdominal aortic surgery. JAMA.1999;281:1310-1312.
Groeger JS, Strosberg MA, Halpern NA.
et al. Descriptive analysis of critical care units in the United States. Crit Care Med.1992;20:846-863.
Vincent JL. Need for intensivists in intensive-care units [editorial]. Lancet.2000;356:695-696.
Dudley RA, Johansen KL, Brand R, Rennie DJ, Milstein A. Selective referral to high-volume hospitals. JAMA.2000;283:1159-1166.
Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB. Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med.1997;126:376-380.
Robinson KA, Dickersin K. Development of a highly sensitive search strategy for the retrieval of reports of
controlled trials using PubMed. Int J Epidemiol.2002;31:150-153.
Brown JJ, Sullivan G. Effect on ICU mortality of a full-time critical care specialist. Chest.1989;96:127-129.
Baldock G, Foley P, Brett S. The impact of organisational change on outcome in an intensive care
unit in the United Kingdom. Intensive Care Med.2001;27:865-872.
Kuo HS, Tang GJ, Chuang JH.
et al. Changing ICU mortality in a decade: effect of full-time intensivist. Crit Care Shock.2000;3:57-61.
Multz AS, Chalfin DB, Samson IM.
et al. A "closed" medical intensive care unit (MICU) improves resource utilization
when compared with an "open" MICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1998;157:1468-1473.
Reynolds HN, Haupt MT, Thill-Baharozian MC, Carlson RW. Impact of critical care physician staffing on patients with septic
shock in a university hospital medical intensive care unit. JAMA.1988;260:3446-3450.
Berlin JA. Randomized Trial Comparing Masked/Unmasked Meta-analyses. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1996.
Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC.
et al. for the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE)
Group. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal
for reporting. JAMA.2000;283:2008-2012.
L'Abbe KA, Detsky AS, O'Rourke K. Meta-analysis in clinical research. Ann Intern Med.1987;107:224-233.
Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication
DerSimonian R. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials.1986;7:177-188.
Woolf B. On estimating the relation between blood group and disease. Ann Hum Genet.1955;19:251-253.
Eagle KA, Mulley AG, Field TS.
et al. Variation in intensive care unit practices in two community hospitals. Med Care.1991;29:1237-1245.
Mirski MA, Chang CW, Cowan R. Impact of a neuroscience intensive care unit on neurosurgical patient
outcomes and cost of care. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol.2001;13:83-92.
Park CA, McGwin GJ, Smith DR.
et al. Trauma-specific intensive care units can be cost effective and contribute
to reduced hospital length of stay. Am Surg.2001;67:665-670.
Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. An evaluation of outcome from intensive care in major medical centers. Ann Intern Med.1986;104:410-418.
Teres D, Brown RB, Lemeshow S, Parsells JL. A comparison of mortality and charges in two differently staffed intensive
care units. Inquiry.1983;20:282-289.
Lima C, Levy MM. The impact of an on-site intensivist on patient charges and length
of stay in the medical intensive care unit [abstract]. Crit Care Med.1995;23:A238.
Cowen J, Matchett S, Kaufman J, Baker K, Wasser T, Ray D. Progressive reduction in severity-adjusted mortality after implementation
of a critical care program [abstract]. Crit Care Med.1999;27:A35.
Pollack MM, Patel KM, Ruttimann E. Pediatric critical care training programs have a positive effect on
pediatric intensive care mortality. Crit Care Med.1997;25:1637-1642.
Al-Asadi L, Dellinger RP, Deutch J, Nathan SS. Clinical impact of closed versus open provider care in a medical intensive
care unit [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1996;153:A360.
Carson SS, Stocking C, Podsadecki T.
et al. Effects of organizational change in the medical intensive care unit
of a teaching hospital. JAMA.1996;276:322-328.
Ghorra S, Reinert SE, Cioffi W, Buczko G, Simms HH. Analysis of the effect of conversion from open to closed surgical intensive
care unit. Ann Surg.1999;229:163-171.
Li TC, Phillips MC, Shaw L, Cook EF, Natanson C, Goldman L. On-site physician staffing in a community hospital intensive care unit. JAMA.1984;252:2023-2027.
Jacobs MC, Hussain E, Hanna A.
et al. Improving the outcome and efficiency of surgical intensive care: the
impact of full time medical intensivists [abstract]. Chest.1998;114:276S-277S.
Manthous CA, Amoateng-Adjepong Y, al-Kharrat T.
et al. Effects of a medical intensivist on patient care in a community teaching
hospital. Mayo Clin Proc.1997;72:391-399.
Marini CP, Nathan IM, Ritter G, Rivera L, Jurkiewicz A, Cohen JR. The impact of full-time surgical intensivists on ICU utilization and
mortality [abstract]. Crit Care Med.1995;23:A235.
Pollack MM, Katz RW, Ruttimann UE, Getson PR. Improving the outcome and efficiency of intensive care: the impact
of an intensivist. Crit Care Med.1988;16:11-17.
Reich HS, Buhler L, David M, Whitmer G. Saving lives in the community: impact of intensive care leadership
[abstract]. Crit Care Med.1998;25:A44.
Tai DYH, Goh SK, Eng PCT, Wang YT. Impact on quality of patient care and procedure use in the medical
intensive care unit (MICU) following reorganisation. Ann Acad Med Singapore.1998;27:309-313.
Pollack MM, Cuerdon TT, Patel KM, Ruttimann UE, Getson PR, Levetown M. Impact of quality-of-care factors on pediatric intensive care unit
DiCosmo BF. Addition of an intensivist improves ICU outcomes in a non-teaching
community hospital [abstract]. Chest.1999;116:238S.
Dimick JB, Pronovost PJ, Heitmiller RF, Lipsett PA. Intensive care unit physician staffing is associated with decreased
length of stay, hospital cost, and complications after esophageal resection. Crit Care Med.2001;29:753-758.
Dimick JB, Pronovost PJ, Lipsett PA. The effect of ICU physician staffing and hospital volume on outcomes
after hepatic resection [abstract]. Crit Care Med.2000;28:A77.
Rosenfeld BA, Dorman T, Breslow MJ.
et al. Intensive care unit telemedicine: alternate paradigm for providing
continuous intensivist care. Crit Care Med.2000;28:3925-3931.
Diringer MN, Edwards DF. Admission to a neurologic/neurosurgical intensive care unit is associated
with reduced mortality rate after intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med.2001;29:635-640.
Goh AYT, Lum LCS, Abdel-Latif MEA. Impact of 24 hour critical care physician staffing on case-mix adjusted
mortality in paediatric intensive care. Lancet.2001;357:445-446.
Blunt MC, Burchett KR. Out-of-hours consultant cover and case-mix-adjusted mortality in intensive
Topeli A. Effect of changing organization of intensive care unit from "open policy
without critical care specialist" to "closed policy with critical care specialist"
[abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2000;161:A397.
Hanson CW, Deutschman CS, Anderson HL.
et al. Effects of an organized critical care service on outcomes and resource
utilization: a cohort study. Crit Care Med.1999;27:270-274.
Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled
trials: the QUOROM statement. Lancet.1999;354:1896-1900.
Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med.1985;13:818-829.
Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Draper EA.
et al. The APACHE III prognostic system. Chest.1991;100:1619-1636.
Lemeshow S, Teres D, Klar J, Avrunin JS, Gehlbach SH, Rapoport J. Mortality Probability Models (MPM II) based on an international cohort
of intensive care unit patients. JAMA.1993;270:2478-2486.
Pollack MM, Ruttimann UE, Getson PR. Pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score. Crit Care Med.1988;16:1110-1116.
Pollack MM, Patel KM, Ruttimann UE. PRISM III: an updated pediatric risk of mortality score. Crit Care Med.1996;24:743-752.
Yeh TS, Pollack MM, Ruttimann UE, Holbrook PR, Fields AI. Validation of a physiologic stability index for use in critically ill
infants and children. Pediatr Res.1984;18:445-451.
Teasdale GM, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. Lancet.1974;2:81-84.
Schmitz R, Lantin M, White A. Future Workforce Needs in Pulmonary and Critical
Care Medicine. Cambridge, Mass: Abt Associates; 1999.
Audit Commission. Critical to Success: The Place of Efficient and Effective
Critical Care Services Within the Acute Hospital. London, England: Audit Commission; 1999.
Cole L, Bellomo R, Silvester W, Reeves JH.for the Victorian Severe Acute Renal Failure Study Group. A prospective, multicenter study of the epidemiology, management, and
outcome of severe acute renal failure in a "closed" ICU system. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2000;162:191-196.
Ferdinande P. Recommendations on minimal requirements for intensive care departments. Intensive Care Med.1997;23:226-232.
Mark DH. Interpreting the term selection bias in medical
research. Fam Med.1997;29:132-136.
Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF.
et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe
sepsis. N Engl J Med.2001;344:699-709.
The ARDS Network Authors for the ARDS Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal
volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1301-1308.
Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F.
et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med.2001;345:1359-1367.
Moher D, Pham B, Klassen TP.
et al. Does the language of publication of reports of randomized trials influence
the estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses [Thomas
C. Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews Web site]? Available at: http://www.cheori.org/tcc/viewpoints/language.htm. Accessibility verified September 16, 2002.
Juni P, Witschi A, Bloch R, Egger M. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis. JAMA.1999;282:1054-1060.
Pronovost PJ, Dang D, Dorman T.
et al. Intensive care unit nurse staffing and the risk for complications after
abdominal aortic surgery. Eff Clin Pract.2001;4:199-206.
Milstein A, Galvin RS, Delbanco SF, Salber P, Buck Jr CR. Improving the safety of health care: the leapfrog initiative. Eff Clin Pract.2000;3:313-316.
Birkmeyer JD, Birkmeyer CM, Wennberg DE, Young M. Leapfrog safety standards: the potential benefits of universal adoption
[Leapfrog Patient Safety Standards Web site]. Available at: http://leapfroggroup.org/PressEvent/birkmeyer.pdf. Accessibility verified September 16, 2002.
Brilli RJS. Critical care delivery in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.2001;29:2007-2019.