Borbely AA, Achermann P. Sleep homeostasis and models of sleep regulation. J Biol Rhythms.1999;14:557-568.
Carrier J, Monk TH. Circadian rhythms of performance: new trends. Chronobiol Int.2000;17:719-732.
Jewett ME, Dijk DJ, Kronauer RE, Dinges DF. Dose-response relationship between sleep duration and human psychomotor
vigilance and subjective alertness. Sleep.1999;22:171-179.
Dement WC, Mitler MM. It's time to wake up to the importance of sleep disorders. JAMA.1993;269:1548-1550.
Daugherty SR, Baldwin Jr DC, Rowley BD. Learning, satisfaction, and mistreatment during medical internship:
a national survey of working conditions. JAMA.1998;279:1194-1199.
Doran SM, Van Dongen HP, Dinges DF. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence
of state instability. Arch Ital Biol.2001;139:253-267.
Williams HL, Lubin A, Goodnow JJ. Impaired performance with acute sleep loss. Psychol Monogr.1959;73:1-26.
Pilcher JJ, Huffcutt AI. Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep.1996;19:318-326.
Carskadon M, Dement WC. Cumulative effects of sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness. Psychophysiology.1981;18:107-113.
Blagrove M, Alexander C, Horne JA. The effects of chronic sleep reduction on the performance of cognitive
tasks sensitive to sleep deprivation. Appl Cogn Psychol.1994;9:21-40.
Dinges DF, Pack F, Williams K.
et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance
performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per
Anderson CM, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP.
et al. Effect of chronically reduced nocturnal sleep, with and without daytime
naps, on neurobehavioral performance. Sleep.2000;23:A74.
Linde L, Bergstorm M. The effect of one night without sleep on problem-solving and immediate
recall. Psychol Res.1992;54:127-136.
Polzella DJ. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory. J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn].1975;104:194-200.
Horne JA. Sleep loss and "divergent thinking" ability. Sleep.1988;11:528-536.
Smith C, MacNeill C. Memory for motor task is impaired by stage 2 sleep loss. Sleep Res.1992;21:139.
Smith C, Kelly G. Paradoxical sleep deprivation applied two days after the end of training
retards learning. Physiol Behav.1988;43:213-216.
Blagrove M, Akehurst L. Effects of sleep loss on confidence-accuracy relationships for reasoning
and eyewitness memory. J Exp Psychol Appl.2000;6:59-73.
Harrison Y, Horne JA. Sleep loss and temporal memory. Q J Exp Psychol A.2000;53:271-279.
Lee M, Kleitman N. Studies on the physiology of sleep, II: attempts to demonstrate functional
changes in the nervous system during experimental insomnia. Am J Physiol.1923;67:141-152.
Kleitman N. The effects of prolonged sleeplessness on man. Am J Physiol.1923;66:67-92.
De Valck E, Cluydts R. Slow-release caffeine as a countermeasure to driver sleepiness induced
by partial sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res.2001;10:203-209.
Kingshott RN, Vennelle M, Coleman EL, Engleman HM, Mackay TW, Douglas NJ. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of modafinil
in the treatment of residual excessive daytime sleepiness in the sleep apnea/hypopnea
syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2001;163:918-923.
Wiegmann DA, Stanny RR, McKay DL, Neri DF, McCardie AH. Methamphetamine effects on cognitive processing during extended wakefulness. Int J Aviat Psychol.1996;6:379-397.
Franco P, Szliwowski H, Dramaix M, Kahn A. Influence of ambient temperature on sleep characteristics and autonomic
nervous control in healthy infants. Sleep.2000;23:401-407.
Cajochen C, Knoblauch V, Krauchi K, Renz C, Wirz-Justice A. Dynamics of frontal EEG activity, sleepiness and body temperature under
high and low sleep pressure. Neuroreport.2001;12:2277-2281.
Edwards SJ, Montgomery IM, Colquhoun EQ, Jordan JE, Clark MG. Spicy meal disturbs sleep: an effect of thermoregulation? Int J Psychophysiol.1992;13:97-100.
Goldman LI, McDonough MT, Rosemond GP. Stresses affecting surgical performance and learning: correlation of
heart rate, electrocardiogram and operation simultaneously recorded on videotapes. J Surg Res.1972;12:83-86.
Reznick RK, Folse JR. Effect of sleep deprivation on the performance of surgical residents. Am J Surg.1987;154:520-525.
Deaconson TF, O'Hair DP, Levy MF, Lee MB, Schueneman AL, Codon RE. Sleep deprivation and resident performance. JAMA.1988;260:1721-1727.
Bartle EJ, Sun JH, Thompson L, Light AI, McCool C, Heaton S. The effects of acute sleep deprivation during residency training. Surgery.1988;104:311-316.
Light AI, Sun JH, McCool C, Thompson L, Heaton S, Bartle EJ. The effects of acute sleep deprivation on the level of resident training. Curr Surg.1989;46:29-30.
Browne BJ, Van Susteren T, Onsager DR, Simpson D, Salaymeh B, Condon RE. Influence of sleep deprivation on learning among surgical house staff
and medical students. Surgery.1994;115:604-610.
Haynes DF, Schwedler M, Dyslin DC, Rice JC, Kerstein MD. Are postoperative complications related to resident sleep deprivation? South Med J.1995;88:283-289.
Taffinder NJ, McManus IC, Gul Y, Russell RC, Darzi A. Effect of sleep deprivation on surgeons' dexterity on laparoscopy simulator. Lancet.1998;352:1191.
Grantcharov TP, Bardram L, Funch-Jensen P, Rosenberg J. Laparoscopic performance after one night on call in a surgical department:
prospective study. BMJ.2001;323:1222-1223.
Godellas CV, Huang R. Factors affecting performance on the American Board of Surgery in-training
examination. Am J Surg.2001;181:294-296.
Friedman RC, Bigger JT, Kornfeld DS. The intern and sleep loss. N Engl J Med.1971;285:201-203.
Poulton EC, Hunt GM, Carpenter A, Edwards RS. The performance of junior hospital doctors following reduced sleep
and long hours of work. Ergonomics.1978;21:279-295.
Christensen EE, Dietz GW, Murry RC, Moore JG. The effect of fatigue on resident performance. Radiology.1977;125:103-105.
Bertram DA. Characteristics of shifts and second-year resident performance in an
emergency department. N Y State J Med.1988;88:10-15.
Ford CV, Wentz DK. The internship year: a study of sleep, mood states, and psychophysiologic
parameters. South Med J.1984;77:1435-1442.
Klose JK, Wallace-Barnhill GL, Craythorne MW. Performance test results for anesthesia residents over a five-day week
including on-call duty. Anesthesiology.1985;63:A485.
Denisco RA, Drummond JN, Gravenstein JS. The effect of fatigue on the performance of a simulated anesthetic
monitoring task. J Clin Monit.1987;3:22-24.
Engel W, Seime R, Powell V, D'Alessandri R. Clinical performance of interns after being on call. South Med J.1987;80:761-763.
Orton DI, Gruzelier JH. Adverse changes in mood and cognitive performance of house officers
after night duty. BMJ.1989;298:21-23.
Storer JS, Floyd HH, Gill WL, Giusti CW, Ginsberg H. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive ability and skills of pediatrics
residents. Acad Med.1989;64:29-32.
Robbins J, Gottlieb F. Sleep deprivation and cognitive testing in internal medicine house
staff. West J Med.1990;152:82-86.
Jacques CH, Lynch JC, Samkoff JS. The effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance of resident physicians. J Fam Pract.1990;30:223-229.
Rubin R, Orris P, Lau SL, Hryhorczuk DO, Furner S, Letz R. Neurobehavioral effects of the on-call experience in housestaff physicians. J Occup Med.1991;33:13-18.
Nelson CS, Dell'Angela K, Jellish WS, Brown IE, Skaredoff M. Residents' performance before and after night call as evaluated by
an indicator of creative thought. J Am Osteopath Assoc.1995;95:600-603.
Hart RP, Buchsbaum DG, Wade JB, Hamer RM, Kwentus JA. Effect of sleep deprivation on first-year residents' response times,
memory, and mood. J Med Educ.1987;62:940-942.
Gottlieb DJ, Parenti CM, Peterson CA, Lofgren RP. Effect of a change in housestaff work schedule on resource utilization
and patient care. Arch Intern Med.1991;151:2065-2070.
Lingenfelser T, Kaschel R, Weber A, Zaiser-Kaschel H, Jakober B, Kuber J. Young hospital doctors after night duty: their task specific cognitive
status and emotional condition. Med Educ.1994;28:566-572.
Hawkins MR, Vichick DA, Silsby HD, Kruzich DJ, Butler R. Sleep deprivation and performance of house officers. J Med Educ.1985;60:530-535.
Leonard C, Fanning N, Attwood J, Buckley M. The effect of fatigue, sleep deprivation and onerous working hours
on the physical and mental wellbeing of pre-registration house officers. Ir J Med Sci.1998;167:22-25.
Richardson GS, Wyatt JK, Sullivan JP.
et al. Objective assessment of sleep and alertness in medical house staff
and the impact of protected time for sleep. Sleep.1996;19:718-726.
Smith-Coggins R, Rosekind MR, Hurd S, Buccino KR. Relationship of day versus night sleep to physician performance and
mood. Ann Emerg Med.1994;24:928-934.
Smith-Coggins R, Rosekind MR, Buccino KR, Dinges DF, Moser RP. Rotating shiftwork schedules: can we enhance physician adaptation to
night shifts? Acad Emerg Med.1997;4:951-961.
Deary IJ, Tait QR. Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed).1987;295:1513-1516.
Asken MJ, Raham DC. Resident performance and sleep deprivation: a review. J Med Educ.1983;58:382-388.
Parker JB. The effects of fatigue on physician performance—an underestimated
cause of physician impairment and increased patient risk. Can J Anaesth.1987;34:489-495.
Leung L, Becker CE. Sleep deprivation and house staff performance. J Occup Med.1992;34:1153-1160.
Samkoff JS, Jacques CH. A review of studies concerning effects of sleep deprivation and fatigue
on residents performance. Acad Med.1991;66:687-693.
Wilkinson RT, Tyler PD, Varey CA. Duty hours of young hospital doctors: effects on the quality of work. J Occup Psychol.1975;48:219-229.
Lewittes LR, Marshall VW. Fatigue and concerns about quality of care among Ontario interns and
Ruby ST, Allen L, Fielding P, Deckers PJ. Survey of residents' attitudes toward reform of work hours. Arch Surg.1990;125:764-768.
Scher KS, Peoples JB. A study of the on-duty hours of surgical residents. Surgery.1990;108:393-399.
Strunk CL, Bailey BJ, Cummings CW.
et al. Resident work hours and working environment in otorhinolaryngology:
analysis of daily activity and resident perception. JAMA.1991;266:1371-1374.
Wu AW, Folkman S, McPhee SJ, Lo B. Do house officers learn from their mistakes? JAMA.1991;265:2089-2094.
Bunch WH, Dvonch VM, Storr CL, Baldwin DC, Hughes PH. The stresses of the surgical residency. J Surg Res.1992;53:268-271.
McKee M, Black N. Does the current use of junior doctors in the United Kingdom affect
the quality of medical care? Soc Sci Med.1992;34:549-558.
Firth-Cozens J, Greenhalgh J. Doctors' perceptions of the links between stress and lowered clinical
care. Soc Sci Med.1997;44:1017-1022.
Sawyer RG, Tribble CG, Newberg DS, Pruett TL, Minasi JS. Intern call schedules and their relationship to sleep, operating room
participation, stress, and satisfaction. Surgery.1999;126:337-342.
Tyssen R, Vaglum P, Gronvold NT, Ekeberg O. The impact of job stress and working conditions on mental health problems
among junior house officers: a nationwide Norwegian prospective cohort study. Med Educ.2000;34:374-384.
Defoe DM, Power ML, Holzman GB, Carpentieri A, Schulkin J. Long hours and little sleep: work schedules of residents in obstetrics
and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol.2001;97:1015-1018.
Tov N, Rubin AH, Lavie P. Effects of workload on residents' sleep duration: objective documentation. Isr J Med Sci.1995;31:417-423.
Akerstadt T, Arnetz BB, Anderzen I. Physicians during and following night call duty—41 hour ambulatory
recording of sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol.1990;76:193-196.
Altschuler LL, Kagan BL, Baxter LR, Smith JG, Wilkins JN. Effect of interrupted sleep patterns and partial sleep deprivation
on DST and mood in psychiatric house officers. Acta Psychiatr Scand.1987;75:614-618.
Brennan TA, Leape LA, Laird NM.
et al. Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients:
results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. N Engl J Med.1991;324:370-376.
Thomas EJ, Studdert DM, Newhouse JP.
et al. Costs of medical injuries in Utah and Colorado. Inquiry.1999;36:255-264.
McDonald CJ, Weiner M, Hui SL. Death due to medical errors are exaggerated in Institute of Medicine
Cook R, Woods D. Operating at the sharp end: the complexity of human error. In: Bogner MS, ed. Human Error in Medicine.
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 1994.
Freidman RC, Kornfeld DS, Bigger TJ. Psychological problems associated with sleep deprivation in interns. J Med Educ.1973;48:436-441.
Berkoff K, Rusin W. Pediatric house staff's psychological response to call duty. J Dev Behav Pediatr.1991;12:6-10.
Pitts FN, Shuller AB, Rich CL, Pitts AF. Suicide among US women physicians 1967-1972. Am J Psychiatr.1979;136:694-696.
Valko RJ, Clayton PJ. Depression in the internship. Dis Nerv Syst.1975;36:26-29.
Reuben DB. Psychologic effects of residency. South Med J.1983;76:380-383.
Osborn LM, Harris DL, Reading JC, Prather MB. Outcomes of pregnancies experienced during residency. J Fam Pract.1990;31:618-622.
Marcus CL, Loughlin GM. Effect of sleep deprivation on driving safety in housestaff. Sleep.1996;19:763-766.
Wendt JR, Yen LJ. The resident by moonlight: a misguided missile. JAMA.1988;259:43-44.
Steele MT, Ma OJ, Watson WA, Thomas HA, Muelleman RL. The occupational risk of motor vehicle collisions for emergency medicine
residents. Acad Emerg Med.1999;6:1050-1053.
Geer RT, Jobes DR, Tew JD, Stepsis LH. Incidence of automobile accidents involving anesthesia residents after
on-call duty cycles. Anesthesiology.1997;87:A938.
Acherman P, Werth E, Dijk D, Borbely AA. Time course of sleep inertia after nighttime and daytime sleep episodes. Arch Ital Biol.1995;134:109-119.
Bruck D, Pisani DL. The effects of sleep inertia on decision-making performance. J Sleep Res.1999;8:95-103.
Asch D, Parker R. The Libby Zion case: one step forward or two steps backward? N Engl J Med.1988;318:771-775.
Holzman IR, Barnett SH. The Bell Commission: ethical implications for the training of physicians. Mt Sinai J Med.2000;67:136-139.
65 Federal Register. 25540-25611 (2000) (codified at 14 CFR §121; 14 CFR §135).
Lin TD, Jovanis PP, Yang CZ. Time of Day Models of Motor Carrier Accident Risk. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board; 1994:1-8. Transportation
Research Record 1467.
Rosenthal L, Roehrs T, Zwyghuizen-Doorenbos A, Plath D, Roth T. Alerting effects of caffeine after normal and restricted sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology.1991;4:103-108.
Reyner LA, Horne JA. Early morning driver sleepiness: effectiveness of 200 mg caffeine. Psychophysiology.2000;37:251-256.
Dinges D, Maislin G, Van Dongen H. Chronic sleep restriction: relation of sleep structure to daytime sleepiness
and performance. Sleep.2001;24:A28.
Newhouse PA, Belenky G, Thomas M, Thorne D, Sing HC, Fertig J. The effects of d-amphetamine on arousal, cognition, and mood after
prolonged total sleep deprivation. Neuropsychopharmacology.1989;2:153-164.
Bensimon J, Benoit O, Lacomblez L.
et al. Antagonism of modafanil of the psychomotor and cognitive impairment
induced by sleep deprivation in 12 healthy volunteers. Psychiatr Psychobiol.1989;9:193-254.
Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Impact of naps and caffeine on extended nocturnal performance. Physiol Behav.1994;56:103-109.
Gillberg M, Kecklund G, Axelsson J, Akerstadt T. Counteracting sleepiness with a short nap. J Sleep Res.1994;3:90.
Horne JA, Reyner LA. Counteracting driver sleepiness: effects of napping, caffeine, and
Wright KP, Badia P, Myers BL, Plenler SC. Combination of bright light and caffeine as a countermeasure for impaired
alertness and performance during extended sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res.1997;6:26-35.