0
Original Contribution |

Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy With Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin B6 on Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention:  The Swiss Heart Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial FREE

Guido Schnyder, MD; Marco Roffi, MD; Yvonne Flammer, MD; Riccardo Pin, MD; Otto Martin Hess, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Division of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland (Drs Flammer, Pin, and Hess); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine/F25, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Roffi); and the Division of Cardiology, UCSD Medical Center, University of California, San Diego (Dr Schnyder).


JAMA. 2002;288(8):973-979. doi:10.1001/jama.288.8.973.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Context Plasma homocysteine level has been recognized as an important cardiovascular risk factor that predicts adverse cardiac events in patients with established coronary atherosclerosis and influences restenosis rate after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Objective To evaluate the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving 553 patients referred to the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, from May 1998 to April 1999 and enrolled after successful angioplasty of at least 1 significant coronary stenosis (≥50%).

Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (1 mg/d), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, 400 µg/d), and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride, 10 mg/d) (n = 272) or placebo (n = 281) for 6 months.

Main Outcome Measure Composite end point of major adverse events defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and need for repeat revascularization, evaluated at 6 months and 1 year.

Results After a mean (SD) follow-up of 11 (3) months, the composite end point was significantly lower at 1 year in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering therapy (15.4% vs 22.8%; relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.96; P = .03), primarily due to a reduced rate of target lesion revascularization (9.9% vs 16.0%; RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.97; P = .03). A nonsignificant trend was seen toward fewer deaths (1.5% vs 2.8%; RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.16-1.70; P = .27) and nonfatal myocardial infarctions (2.6% vs 4.3%; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.24-1.51; P = .27) with homocysteine-lowering therapy. These findings remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders.

Conclusion Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 significantly decreases the incidence of major adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Figures in this Article

Despite technical improvements, restenosis and overall adverse events after percutaneous coronary interventions remain important limitations of this procedure.1 Epidemiological evidence suggests that total plasma homocysteine level is an independent cardiovascular risk factor,2,3 correlates with the severity of coronary artery disease,4,5 predicts mortality in patients with established coronary atherosclerosis,6,7 and may have a potential role with regard to outcome after coronary interventions. Studies on the pathogenesis of homocysteine-induced vascular damage have suggested adverse interaction with vascular smooth muscle cells,8,9 endothelium function,10,11 plasma lipoproteins,12 and coagulation cascade,1316 which may contribute to homocysteine-induced atherogenesis, restenosis, and overall adverse events after coronary interventions, such as angioplasty.

Previous reports have documented that plasma homocysteine levels predict outcome after coronary angioplasty17,18 and our group has shown that homocysteine-lowering therapy significantly decreases restenosis rate after coronary angioplasty.19 Based on those results, we now report in an extension of our original study, the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) on clinical outcome after successful coronary angioplasty and, in particular, whether the previously described 6 months' benefit is maintained at 1 year despite cessation of homocysteine-lowering therapy at 6 months.

The protocol was approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland. Each patient gave written informed consent. This was a prospective study enrolling 553 consecutive patients from May 1998 to April 1999 who had undergone angioplasty of at least 1 significant coronary stenosis (≥50%) (Figure 1). After successful coronary angioplasty, patients were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive folic acid (1 mg/d), vitamin B12 (400 µg/d), and vitamin B6 (10 mg/d) or placebo daily for 6 months. The study medication was formulated to obtain a maximal homocysteine-lowering effect with a minimal risk of adverse effects.20 The study population included a subgroup of 205 patients independently randomized and scheduled for follow-up angiography at 6 months; the quantitative angiography results of this subgroup have been published.19

Figure 1. Flowchart of Study Patients
Graphic Jump Location

Patients with unstable angina, subacute myocardial infarction (<2 weeks), renal insufficiency (serum creatinine level >1.8 mg/dL [160 µmol/L]), or taking vitamin supplements were not included. Patients were asked to withhold any multivitamin intake for the entire study duration. Fasting total plasma homocysteine levels were measured on admission and at 6 months follow-up using a rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.21 Coronary angioplasty was performed according to standard clinical practice, with success defined as residual diameter stenosis less than 35% with normal flow pattern (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Ischemia [TIMI] III trial criteria).22

Angiographic Evaluation

Quantitative evaluation was carried out in monoplane projection after predilatation with nitrates. Two orthogonal views were averaged for biplane assessment. Data analysis was performed using an automated edge-detection system (Philips Integris-BH-3000, Version 2 [if online] or Philips View-Station-CDM-3500, Version 2 [if offline]; Philips, Best, the Netherlands) with an institutional intraobserver variability of 0.15 mm for minimal luminal diameter and 7% for stenosis severity.19 The tip of the diagnostic or guiding catheter (positioned at the coronary ostium) was used for calibration purposes. The same views and calibration techniques were used for target lesion revascularization. End-diastolic frames in the 2 orthogonal views that demonstrated maximal stenosis severity were used for luminal diameter measurement. Reference vessel diameter, minimal luminal diameter, diameter stenosis, and lesion length were calculated as the average value of the 2 views. Angiograms were reviewed by an experienced interventional cardiologist blinded to patients' homocysteine level and treatment assignments.

Follow-up and Study End Points

Clinical follow-up, including noninvasive stress test and resting electrocardiogram, was performed at 6 months and 1 year, or earlier if symptoms recurred. Adverse events were defined prospectively as (1) death; (2) cardiac death, defined as sudden, unexplained death or death related to myocardial infarction; (3) nonfatal myocardial infarction, defined as new Q waves (>40 ms; >0.2 mV) in 2 or more contiguous electrocardiographic leads; (4) need for repeat revascularization for proven ischemia demonstrated by either follow-up cardiac events or a positive noninvasive stress test with significant angiographic stenosis of at least 50%; and (5) a composite of major adverse events defined as any of the above events. Patients with more than 1 event had only the first occurring event computed for overall major adverse events determination.

Statistical Analysis

The target sample size of 555 patients was based on the assumption that the rate of major adverse events would be 25% or more in the placebo-treated group and less than 15% in the group treated with folate+B12+B6.17,19 Assuming a 10% dropout rate, the planned sample size would yield 500 patients with complete follow-up and give the study a statistical power of 80% at a significance level of .05.23 All analyses were performed with the intent-to-treat principle, and patients lost to follow-up were censored at the time clinical data became no longer available.

Plasma homocysteine levels were positively skewed and therefore log-transformed prior to analysis. Results are shown in natural units. Categorical variables are reported as counts (percentages) and continuous variables as mean (SD). Categorical variables were examined by χ2 test. Continuous variables were examined by a 2-tailed t test or by the Mann-Whitney U test if skewed. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to estimate the correlation between homocysteine levels and different continuous variables.

Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to evaluate freedom from major adverse events, and treatment effect differences were assessed with the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the relation between treatment groups and the different end points, after adjustment for multiple clinical and angiographic covariates including age, sex, use or nonuse of stent, treatment of restenotic or de novo lesions, vessel size, postprocedural minimal luminal diameter, target lesion location, and use or nonuse of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Selected variables were those that were associated with at least 1 of the end points in unadjusted analysis. Cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status) and statin use were not associated with the different end points in unadjusted analysis. Furthermore, adjustment for those variables did not significantly modify the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and were thus not included in the model. Patients with a history of renal failure (serum creatinine level, >1.8 mg/dL [160 µmol/L]) were not included to avoid elevated creatinine values as confounders for increased plasma homocysteine levels. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed using StatView Version 4.5 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

Five hundred fifty-three patients were randomly assigned either to receive folate+B12+B6 (n = 272) or placebo (n = 281), with a total of 741 successfully treated lesions (Figure 1). Seventy patients (110 lesions) were lost to follow-up or did not comply with the study protocol: 14 (6 in the folate+B12+B6 group) discontinued study medication, 37 (15 in the folate+B12+B6 group) refused noninvasive stress testing, 17 (8 in the folate+B12+B6 group) with proven ischemia refused reangiography, and 2 (1 in the folate+B12+B6 group) developed reversible contrast agent nephropathy. Two patients randomized to receive folate+B12+B6 discontinued study medication because of pruritus. No other adverse effect was reported. The baseline clinical, laboratory, and angiographic characteristics of the 70 patients without complete follow-up did not significantly differ from the remaining study population. Given that clinical outcomes were the primary end points in this study, all analyses were performed with the intent-to-treat principle.

Baseline Characteristics

Patients in the 2 groups were well matched at baseline with regard to demographic variables and cardiovascular risk factors (Table 1). Severity of coronary artery disease (as measured by a history of previous myocardial infarction, previous revascularization, and the number of treated lesions per patient), baseline laboratory values, and discharge drug therapy were not significantly different between study groups. As expected, mean homocysteine levels (SD) at 6 months were significantly lower with folate+B12+B6 therapy compared with placebo (1.01 [0.34] mg/L [7.5 (2.5) µmol/L] vs 1.36 [0.57] mg/L [10.1 (4.2) µmol/L], P<.001). Mild to moderate elevation of homocysteine levels (>1.62 mg/L [12 µmol/L]) was present in 29% of patients at baseline. None of the patients had severe hyperhomocysteinemia (>13.5 mg/L [100 µmol/L]). Baseline homocysteine levels correlated with age (Spearman r = 0.212, P<.001), serum creatinine levels (Spearman r = 0.251, P<.001), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (Spearman r = −0.128, P = .004).

Lesion location was independent of study group: 40% of all lesions were located in the left anterior descending coronary artery and about 30% each in the circumflex coronary artery and the right coronary artery (Table 2).24 Lesion severity (lesion complexity, lesion length, vessel size, minimal luminal diameter, and diameter stenosis) before and after coronary angioplasty was comparable between study groups. The use of stents and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors was also identical between study groups.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Lesion Characteristics and Treatment Options*
Study End Points

After a mean (SD) follow-up of 11 (3) months, 14.0% of patients treated with folate+B12+B6 underwent repeat revascularization vs 19.9% of control patients (relative risk [RR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-1.01; P = .06) (Table 3). This difference was primarily due to the number of patients with repeat target lesion revascularization, as 4.0% of patients in the folate+B12+B6 group and 3.9% in the placebo group had revascularization of a lesion other than a target lesion (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.45-2.34; P = .94). Among patients who received folate+B12+B6, 9.9% had repeat target lesion revascularization vs 16.0% in the placebo group, a relative reduction of 38% (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.97; P = .03). The need for target lesion revascularization was also significantly associated with smaller vessel size (SD) (2.91 [0.78] mm vs 3.16 [0.79] mm, P = .02), smaller postprocedural minimal luminal diameter (SD) (2.22 [0.53] mm vs 2.45 [0.78] mm, P = .03), and the restenotic nature of previously treated lesions (RR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.67-6.76; P = .002). Adjustment for multiple risk factors including age, sex, and variables known to influence the need for target lesion revascularization after coronary angioplasty (use of stents, treatment of restenotic lesions, vessel size, postprocedural minimal luminal diameter, target lesion location, use of IIb/IIIa inhibitors) did not significantly change the association between homocysteine-lowering therapy and the need for repeat target lesion revascularization. In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, only folate+B12+B6 therapy (P = .02), the restenotic nature of previously treated lesions (P = .005), and postprocedural minimal luminal diameter (P = .01) retained statistical significance.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Clinical Events at 1 Year Follow-up

The need for target lesion revascularization was independent of cholesterol levels, but the benefit of folate+B12+B6 therapy was most apparent for patients in the highest cholesterol tertile. Compared with controls, patients treated with folate+B12+B6 with cholesterol levels in the highest (>228 mg/dL [5.90 mmol/L]) tertile had the largest risk reduction in terms of target lesion revascularization (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.92; P = .04). This benefit was not significant among patients treated with folate+B12+B6 in the middle (189-228 mg/dL [4.89-5.90 mmol/L]) tertile (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.25-1.23; P = .20) and was smallest in the lowest (<189 mg/dL [4.89 mmol/L]) tertile (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.33-1.55; P = .53). A similar trend was seen for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels ([highest tertile: >145 mg/dL (3.75 mmol/L); RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.91; P = .03] [middle tertile: 108-145 mg/dL (2.80-3.75 mmol/L); RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.14; P = .29] [lowest tertile: <108 mg/dL (2.80 mmol/L); RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.25-1.74; P = .39], respectively). Adjustment for statin use did not significantly change those associations.

There was a nonsignificant trend for a lower incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.24-1.51; P = .27), cardiac deaths (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.13-2.04; P = .34), and overall deaths (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.16-1.70; P = .27) in patients receiving folate+B12+B6 therapy. Older age (SD) was the only variable significantly associated with mortality (65.4 [11.5] years vs 61.2 [10.8] years, P = .002).

The incidence of major adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving folate+B12+B6 therapy at 6 months (11.4% vs 18.9%; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.91; P = .02) and at 1 year follow-up (15.4% vs 22.8%; RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; P = .03) (Figure 2). Adjustment for the previously mentioned variables did not significantly change this association (P = .01). These findings were reproduced in subgroups of patients stratified according to the traditional cardiovascular risk factors (sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) (Figure 3). The only other variable independently associated with the incidence of major adverse events was the restenotic nature of previously treated lesions (P = .008).

Figure 2. Kaplan-Meier Survival Curves for Freedom From Major Adverse Events in 553 Patients
Graphic Jump Location
The rate of event-free survival was significantly higher among patients assigned to receive folate+B12+B6 therapy than among control patients. The relative risk of a major adverse event with folate+B12+B6 therapy was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.91; log-rank P = .02) at 6 months and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.96; log-rank P = .03) at 1 year (mean [SD] follow-up, 11 [3] months).
Figure 3. Risk of Major Adverse Events With Folate + Vitamin B12+Vitamin B6 Therapy Among Total Study Population and Subgroups of Patients Stratified According to Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Graphic Jump Location
The size of each data marker is proportional to the number of patients; horizontal bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

This study provides evidence that homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 improves outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention by reducing the need for repeat revascularization and decreasing the overall incidence of major adverse events 1 year after successful coronary angioplasty. This benefit is primarily related to a decrease in target lesion revascularization, as the need for revascularization of lesions other than a target lesion was almost identical between study groups. Furthermore, these findings were reproduced in subgroups of patients stratified according to the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Vessel size, postprocedural minimal luminal diameter, and treatment of restenotic lesions are known to influence the need for target lesion revascularization.25,26 These parameters were equally distributed between study groups and the benefit of folate+B12+B6 therapy on the outcome after coronary angioplasty remained unaltered after adjustment for those risk factors. These results are consistent with those of recent randomized trials with homocysteine-lowering therapy showing decreased risk of atherosclerotic coronary events among healthy patients,27 halting in the progression of carotid plaque,28 improved arterial endothelial function,2931 and significant benefit on restenosis rate after coronary angioplasty.19

This study further suggests that the benefit obtained with homocysteine-lowering therapy at 6 months is maintained at 1 year despite cessation of folate+B12+B6 therapy at 6 months. Our previously reported significant decrease in restenosis rate after coronary angioplasty19 could have been questioned as a temporary benefit triggered by a homocysteine-lowering therapy–related delay of the restenosis process. The current study confirms that a 6-month course of this inexpensive treatment has minimal adverse effects and helps to control excessive restenosis mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether a longer treatment course (ie, up to 12 months) would have benefited the other end points, such as death or myocardial infarction, for which only a trend in favor of homocysteine-lowering therapy was found. These issues should be answered by several ongoing clinical trials: the Norwegian Vitamin Interventional Trial (NORVIT) and the Western Norway B-vitamin Intervention Trial (WENBIT) will assess the effects of homocysteine-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease; the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) study in the United States will report the effect of B vitamins on stroke recurrence in patients with cardiovascular disease; and the Prevention with a Combined Inhibitor and Folate in Coronary Heart Disease (PACIFIC) study in Australia and the Study of Effectiveness of Additional Reduction in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) in the United Kingdom will address similar issues.32

The mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine levels impair vascular function and possibly influence outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention are not clearly understood, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Elevated homocysteine levels stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell growth8,9 and collagen synthesis,33 which promote intimal-medial thickening.34 Elevated homocysteine levels may also have a procoagulant effect through interaction with coagulation factor V,13 protein C,14 tissue plasminogen activator,15 and tissue factor activity.16 However, increasing evidence suggests that the primary mechanism may be oxidative-endothelial injury and dysfunction.10,11 Elevated homocysteine levels decrease the release of nitric oxide35,36 and promote the generation and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, thus rendering nitric oxide more susceptible to oxidative inactivation.34 Furthermore, elevated plasma homocysteine levels promote lipid peroxidation,37 which alters growth factor production and influences smooth muscle cell proliferation.38 Oxidized LDL cholesterol has been shown to increase smooth muscle cells proliferation and chemoattraction39,40 and enhance platelet-derived growth factor gene expression and receptor formation in vascular smooth muscle cell.41 Therefore, homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation may promote smooth muscle cell proliferation, extracellular matrix formation, and ultimately increase the need for repeat target lesion revascularization. Our findings that the benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy increases with higher levels of LDL cholesterol supports this possible mechanism.

A critical question is whether the benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy on the outcome after coronary intervention reflects causality. In the current study, the treatment of restenotic lesions, the treatment of lesions in smaller vessels, and smaller postprocedural minimal luminal diameter were all significantly associated with a worse outcome after coronary angioplasty. Adjustment for these factors did not weaken the benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy, suggesting an independent association.

A limitation of the study design was that it precluded assessment of the separate effects of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6, and the effect of different doses of these vitamins. Furthermore, we cannot exclude the possibility that the benefit seen was not also influenced by other homocysteine-independent treatment effects. Specifically, folic acid likely improves nitric oxide availability independently of its homocysteine-lowering effect,42 and vitamin B6 deficiency appears to be an independent predictor of coronary artery disease43 and further has been shown to alter platelet function.44 Therefore, and despite the findings of the Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration group that vitamin B6 does not significantly lower homocysteine levels,20 the inclusion of vitamin B6 in the homocysteine-lowering therapy or possibly another homocysteine-unrelated effect of folic acid or vitamin B12 could have contributed to the improvement seen in the patients treated with folate+B12+B6. In conclusion, the findings in this study, in conjunction with our previously described association between homocysteine levels and restenosis rate,17 support the conclusion that the combination of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6, at least partially by lowering of homocysteine levels, is an effective therapy for improving outcome in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

Cannon III RO. Restenosis after angioplasty.  N Engl J Med.2002;346:1182-1183.
Boushey CJ, Beresford SAA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes.  JAMA.1995;274:1049-1057.
Seshadri N, Robinson K. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and coronary artery disease.  Med Clin North Am.2000;84:215-237.
Chao CL, Tsai HH, Lee CM.  et al.  The graded effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on the severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis.  Atherosclerosis.1999;147:379-386.
Schnyder G, Pin R, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Hess OM. Association of plasma homocysteine with the number of major coronary arteries severely narrowed.  Am J Cardiol.2001;88:1027-1030.
Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.  N Engl J Med.1997;337:230-236.
Stubbs PJ, Al-Obaidi MK, Conroy RM.  et al.  Effect of plasma homocysteine concentration on early and late events in patients with acute coronary syndromes.  Circulation.2000;102:605-610.
Tsai JC, Perrella MA, Yoshizumi M.  et al.  Promotion of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by homocysteine: a link to atherosclerosis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.1994;91:6369-6373.
Tang L, Mamotte CD, Van Bockxmeer FM, Taylor RR. The effect of homocysteine on DNA synthesis in cultured human vascular smooth muscle.  Atherosclerosis.1998;136:169-173.
Tawakol A, Omland T, Gerhard M, Wu JT, Creager MA. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans  Circulation.1997;95:1119-1121. [published correction appears in Circulation. 2000;101:E116].
Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI.  et al.  Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is a risk factor for arterial endothelial dysfunction in humans.  Circulation.1997;96:2542-2544.
Wang XL, Duarte N, Cai H.  et al.  Relationship between total plasma homocysteine, polymorphisms of homocysteine metabolism related enzymes, risk factors and coronary artery disease in the Australian hospital-based population.  Atherosclerosis.1999;146:133-140.
Rodgers GM, Kane WH. Activation of endogenous factor V by a homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell activator.  J Clin Invest.1986;77:1909-1916.
Rodgers GM, Conn MT. Homocysteine, an atherogenic stimulus, reduces protein C activation by arterial and venous endothelial cells.  Blood.1990;75:895-901.
Hajjar KA, Mauri L, Jacovina AT.  et al.  Tissue plasminogen activator binding to the annexin II tail domain: direct modulation by homocysteine.  J Biol Chem.1998;273:9987-9993.
Khajuria A, Houston DS. Induction of monocyte tissue factor expression by homocysteine: a possible mechanism for thrombosis.  Blood.2000;96:966-972.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Association of plasma homocysteine with restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty.  Eur Heart J.2002;23:726-733.
Morita H, Kurihara H, Kuwaki T.  et al.  Homocysteine as a risk factor for restenosis after coronary angioplasty.  Thromb Haemost.2000;84:27-31.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R.  et al.  Decreased rate of coronary restenosis with lowering of plasma homocysteine levels.  N Engl J Med.2001;345:1593-1600.
Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration.  Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials.  BMJ.1998;316:894-898.
Ubbink JB, Hayward-Vermaak WJ, Bissbort S. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for total homocysteine levels in human serum.  J Chromatogr.1991;565:441-446.
TIMI Study Group.  The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial: phase I findings.  N Engl J Med.1985;312:932-936.
Campbell MJ, Julious SA, Altman DG. Estimating sample sizes for binary, ordered categorical, and continuous outcomes in two group comparisons.  BMJ.1995;311:1145-1148.
Ellis SG, Vandormael MG, Cowley MJ.  et al.  Coronary morphologic and clinical determinants of procedural outcome with angioplasty for multivessel coronary disease: implications for patient selection.  Circulation.1990;82:1193-1202.
Hirshfeld Jr JW, Schwartz JS, Jugo R.  et al.  Restenosis after coronary angioplasty: a multivariate statistical model to relate lesion and procedure variables to restenosis.  J Am Coll Cardiol.1991;18:647-656.
Ellis SG, Cowley MJ, DiSciascio G.  et al.  Determinants of 2-year outcome after coronary angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease on the basis of comprehensive preprocedural evaluation: implications for patient selection.  Circulation.1991;83:1905-1914.
Vermeulen EGJ, Stehouwer CDA, Twisk JWR.  et al.  Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.  Lancet.2000;355:517-522.
Hackam DG, Peterson JC, Spence JD. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? effects of vitamin therapy on progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with homocyst(e)ine levels above and below 14 µmol/L.  Am J Hypertens.2000;13:105-110.
Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI, Sanderson JE, Metreweli C, Celermajer DS. Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia.  J Am Coll Cardiol.1999;34:2002-2006.
Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, Genest JJ, Nassar BA. Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.  J Am Coll Cardiol.2000;36:758-765.
Doshi SN, McDowell IFW, Moat SJ.  et al.  Folate improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease: an effect mediated by reduction of intracellular superoxide?  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.2001;21:1196-1202.
Mangoni AA, Jackson SHD. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects.  Am J Med.2002;112:556-565.
Majors A, Ehrhart LA, Pezacka EH. Homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: enhanced collagen production and accumulation by smooth muscle cells.  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.1997;17:2074-2081.
Starkebaum G, Harlan JM. Endothelial cell injury due to copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide generation from homocysteine.  J Clin Invest.1986;77:1370-1376.
Upchurch Jr GR, Welch GN, Fabian AJ.  et al.  Homocyst(e)ine decreases bioavailable nitric oxide by a mechanism involving glutathione peroxidase.  J Biol Chem.1997;272:17012-17017.
Stuhlinger MC, Tsao PS, Her JH, Kimoto M, Balint RF, Cooke JP. Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine.  Circulation.2001;104:2569-2575.
Voutilainen S, Morrow JD, Roberts II LJ.  et al.  Enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation at elevated plasma total homocysteine levels.  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.1999;19:1263-1266.
Ku G, Doherty NS, Wolos JA, Jackson LR. Inhibition by probucol of interleukin 1 secretion and its implication in atherosclerosis.  Am J Cardiol.1988;62:77B-81B.
Cushing SD, Berliner JA, Valente AJ.  et al.  Minimally modified low density lipoprotein induces monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.1990;87:5134-5138.
Poddar R, Sivasubramanian N, DiBello PM, Robinson K, Jacobsen DW. Homocysteine induces expression and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in human aortic endothelial cells: implications for vascular disease.  Circulation.2001;103:2717-2723.
Stiko-Rahm A, Hultgardh-Nilsson A, Regnstrom J, Hamsten A, Nilsson J. Native and oxidized LDL enhances production of PDGF AA and the surface expression of PDGF receptors in cultured human smooth muscle cells.  Arterioscler Thromb.1992;12:1099-1109.
Verhaar MC, Wever RM, Kastelein JJ, van Dam T, Koomans HA, Rabelink TJ. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid, restores endothelial function in familial hypercholesterolemia.  Circulation.1998;97:237-241.
Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H.  et al.  Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease.  Circulation.1998;97:437-443. [published correction appears in Circulation. 1999;99:983].
Krishnamurthi S, Kakkar VV. Studies on the effect of platelet inhibitors on platelet adhesion to collagen and collagen-induced human platelet activation.  Thromb Haemost.1985;53:337-342.

Figures

Figure 1. Flowchart of Study Patients
Graphic Jump Location
Figure 2. Kaplan-Meier Survival Curves for Freedom From Major Adverse Events in 553 Patients
Graphic Jump Location
The rate of event-free survival was significantly higher among patients assigned to receive folate+B12+B6 therapy than among control patients. The relative risk of a major adverse event with folate+B12+B6 therapy was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.91; log-rank P = .02) at 6 months and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.96; log-rank P = .03) at 1 year (mean [SD] follow-up, 11 [3] months).
Figure 3. Risk of Major Adverse Events With Folate + Vitamin B12+Vitamin B6 Therapy Among Total Study Population and Subgroups of Patients Stratified According to Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Graphic Jump Location
The size of each data marker is proportional to the number of patients; horizontal bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Lesion Characteristics and Treatment Options*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Clinical Events at 1 Year Follow-up

References

Cannon III RO. Restenosis after angioplasty.  N Engl J Med.2002;346:1182-1183.
Boushey CJ, Beresford SAA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes.  JAMA.1995;274:1049-1057.
Seshadri N, Robinson K. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and coronary artery disease.  Med Clin North Am.2000;84:215-237.
Chao CL, Tsai HH, Lee CM.  et al.  The graded effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on the severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis.  Atherosclerosis.1999;147:379-386.
Schnyder G, Pin R, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Hess OM. Association of plasma homocysteine with the number of major coronary arteries severely narrowed.  Am J Cardiol.2001;88:1027-1030.
Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.  N Engl J Med.1997;337:230-236.
Stubbs PJ, Al-Obaidi MK, Conroy RM.  et al.  Effect of plasma homocysteine concentration on early and late events in patients with acute coronary syndromes.  Circulation.2000;102:605-610.
Tsai JC, Perrella MA, Yoshizumi M.  et al.  Promotion of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by homocysteine: a link to atherosclerosis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.1994;91:6369-6373.
Tang L, Mamotte CD, Van Bockxmeer FM, Taylor RR. The effect of homocysteine on DNA synthesis in cultured human vascular smooth muscle.  Atherosclerosis.1998;136:169-173.
Tawakol A, Omland T, Gerhard M, Wu JT, Creager MA. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans  Circulation.1997;95:1119-1121. [published correction appears in Circulation. 2000;101:E116].
Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI.  et al.  Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is a risk factor for arterial endothelial dysfunction in humans.  Circulation.1997;96:2542-2544.
Wang XL, Duarte N, Cai H.  et al.  Relationship between total plasma homocysteine, polymorphisms of homocysteine metabolism related enzymes, risk factors and coronary artery disease in the Australian hospital-based population.  Atherosclerosis.1999;146:133-140.
Rodgers GM, Kane WH. Activation of endogenous factor V by a homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell activator.  J Clin Invest.1986;77:1909-1916.
Rodgers GM, Conn MT. Homocysteine, an atherogenic stimulus, reduces protein C activation by arterial and venous endothelial cells.  Blood.1990;75:895-901.
Hajjar KA, Mauri L, Jacovina AT.  et al.  Tissue plasminogen activator binding to the annexin II tail domain: direct modulation by homocysteine.  J Biol Chem.1998;273:9987-9993.
Khajuria A, Houston DS. Induction of monocyte tissue factor expression by homocysteine: a possible mechanism for thrombosis.  Blood.2000;96:966-972.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Association of plasma homocysteine with restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty.  Eur Heart J.2002;23:726-733.
Morita H, Kurihara H, Kuwaki T.  et al.  Homocysteine as a risk factor for restenosis after coronary angioplasty.  Thromb Haemost.2000;84:27-31.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R.  et al.  Decreased rate of coronary restenosis with lowering of plasma homocysteine levels.  N Engl J Med.2001;345:1593-1600.
Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration.  Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials.  BMJ.1998;316:894-898.
Ubbink JB, Hayward-Vermaak WJ, Bissbort S. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for total homocysteine levels in human serum.  J Chromatogr.1991;565:441-446.
TIMI Study Group.  The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial: phase I findings.  N Engl J Med.1985;312:932-936.
Campbell MJ, Julious SA, Altman DG. Estimating sample sizes for binary, ordered categorical, and continuous outcomes in two group comparisons.  BMJ.1995;311:1145-1148.
Ellis SG, Vandormael MG, Cowley MJ.  et al.  Coronary morphologic and clinical determinants of procedural outcome with angioplasty for multivessel coronary disease: implications for patient selection.  Circulation.1990;82:1193-1202.
Hirshfeld Jr JW, Schwartz JS, Jugo R.  et al.  Restenosis after coronary angioplasty: a multivariate statistical model to relate lesion and procedure variables to restenosis.  J Am Coll Cardiol.1991;18:647-656.
Ellis SG, Cowley MJ, DiSciascio G.  et al.  Determinants of 2-year outcome after coronary angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease on the basis of comprehensive preprocedural evaluation: implications for patient selection.  Circulation.1991;83:1905-1914.
Vermeulen EGJ, Stehouwer CDA, Twisk JWR.  et al.  Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.  Lancet.2000;355:517-522.
Hackam DG, Peterson JC, Spence JD. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? effects of vitamin therapy on progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with homocyst(e)ine levels above and below 14 µmol/L.  Am J Hypertens.2000;13:105-110.
Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI, Sanderson JE, Metreweli C, Celermajer DS. Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia.  J Am Coll Cardiol.1999;34:2002-2006.
Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, Genest JJ, Nassar BA. Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.  J Am Coll Cardiol.2000;36:758-765.
Doshi SN, McDowell IFW, Moat SJ.  et al.  Folate improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease: an effect mediated by reduction of intracellular superoxide?  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.2001;21:1196-1202.
Mangoni AA, Jackson SHD. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects.  Am J Med.2002;112:556-565.
Majors A, Ehrhart LA, Pezacka EH. Homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: enhanced collagen production and accumulation by smooth muscle cells.  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.1997;17:2074-2081.
Starkebaum G, Harlan JM. Endothelial cell injury due to copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide generation from homocysteine.  J Clin Invest.1986;77:1370-1376.
Upchurch Jr GR, Welch GN, Fabian AJ.  et al.  Homocyst(e)ine decreases bioavailable nitric oxide by a mechanism involving glutathione peroxidase.  J Biol Chem.1997;272:17012-17017.
Stuhlinger MC, Tsao PS, Her JH, Kimoto M, Balint RF, Cooke JP. Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine.  Circulation.2001;104:2569-2575.
Voutilainen S, Morrow JD, Roberts II LJ.  et al.  Enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation at elevated plasma total homocysteine levels.  Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.1999;19:1263-1266.
Ku G, Doherty NS, Wolos JA, Jackson LR. Inhibition by probucol of interleukin 1 secretion and its implication in atherosclerosis.  Am J Cardiol.1988;62:77B-81B.
Cushing SD, Berliner JA, Valente AJ.  et al.  Minimally modified low density lipoprotein induces monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.1990;87:5134-5138.
Poddar R, Sivasubramanian N, DiBello PM, Robinson K, Jacobsen DW. Homocysteine induces expression and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in human aortic endothelial cells: implications for vascular disease.  Circulation.2001;103:2717-2723.
Stiko-Rahm A, Hultgardh-Nilsson A, Regnstrom J, Hamsten A, Nilsson J. Native and oxidized LDL enhances production of PDGF AA and the surface expression of PDGF receptors in cultured human smooth muscle cells.  Arterioscler Thromb.1992;12:1099-1109.
Verhaar MC, Wever RM, Kastelein JJ, van Dam T, Koomans HA, Rabelink TJ. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid, restores endothelial function in familial hypercholesterolemia.  Circulation.1998;97:237-241.
Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H.  et al.  Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease.  Circulation.1998;97:437-443. [published correction appears in Circulation. 1999;99:983].
Krishnamurthi S, Kakkar VV. Studies on the effect of platelet inhibitors on platelet adhesion to collagen and collagen-induced human platelet activation.  Thromb Haemost.1985;53:337-342.
CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 236

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles