Guyer B, Hoyert DL, Martin JA, Ventura SJ, MacDorman MF, Strobino DM. Annual summary of vital statistics—1998. Pediatrics.1999;104:1229-1246.
Wood NS, Marlow N, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Wilkinson AR.for the EPICure Study Group. Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med.2000;343:378-384.
Roussounis SH, Hubley PA, Dear PR. Five-year follow-up of very low birthweight infants: neurological and
psychological outcome. Child Care Health Dev.1993;19:45-59.
Hack M, Taylor HG, Klein N, Eiben R, Schatschneider C, Mercuri-Minich N. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g. N Engl J Med.1994;331:753-759.
Saigal S, Szatmari P, Rosenbaum P, Campbell D, King S. Cognitive abilities and school performance of extremely low birth weight
children and matched term control children at age 8 years: a regional study. Pediatrics.1991;118:751-760.
Sommerfelt K, Ellertsen B, Markestad T. Personality and behaviour in eight-year-old, non-handicapped children
with birth weight under 1500 g. Acta Paediatr.1993;82:723-728.
Drillien CM, Thomson AJ, Burgoyne K. Low-birthweight children at early school-age: a longitudinal study. Dev Med Child Neurol.1980;22:26-47.
Hack M, Klein NK, Taylor HG. Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. Future Child.1995;5:176-196.
Aylward GP, Pfeiffer SI, Wright A, Verhulst SJ. Outcome studies of low birth weight infants published in the last decade:
a meta-analysis. Pediatrics.1989;115:515-520.
Escobar GJ, Littenberg B, Petitti DB. Outcome among surviving very low birthweight infants: a meta-analysis. AJDC.1991;66:204-211.
Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC.
et al. for the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE)
group. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal
for reporting. JAMA.2000;283:2008-2012.
Aylward GP. The relationship between environmental risk and developmental outcome. J Dev Behav Pediatr.1992;13:222-229.
Ornstein M, Ohlsson A, Edmonds J, Asztalos E. Neonatal follow-up of very low birthweight/extremely low birthweight
infants to school age: a critical overview. Acta Paediatr.1991;80:741-748.
Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Veen S, Ens-Dokkum MH, Schreuder AM, Brand R, Ruys JH. Sex difference in disability and handicap at five years of age in children
born at very short gestation. Pediatrics.1994;93:576-579.
Greenland S. Meta-analysis. In: Rothman K, Greenland S, eds. Modern Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven; 1998:643-673.
Laird NM, Mosteller F. Some statistical methods for combining experimental results. Int J Technol Assess Health Care.1990;6:5-30.
Galbraith RF. A note on graphical presentation of estimated odds ratios from several
clinical trials. Stat Med.1988;7:889-894.
Thompson SG, Sharp SJ. Explaining heterogeneity in meta-analysis: a comparison of methods. Stat Med.1999;18:2693-2708.
Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ.1997;315:629-634.
Lin LI. A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility. Biometrics.1989;45:255-268.
Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of
clinical measurement. Lancet.1986;1:307-310.
Lloyd BW, Wheldall K, Perks D. Controlled study of intelligence and school performance of very low-birthweight
children from a defined geographical area. Dev Med Child Neurol.1988;30:36-42.
Portnoy S, Callias M, Wolke D, Gamsu H. Five-year follow-up study of extremely low-birthweight infants. Dev Med Child Neurol.1988;30:590-598.
McDonald MA, Sigman M, Ungerer JA. Intelligence and behavior problems in 5-year-olds in relation to representational
abilities in the second year of life. J Dev Behav Pediatr.1989;10:86-91.
Smith AE, Knight-Jones EB. The abilities of very low-birthweight children and their classroom
controls. Dev Med Child Neurol.1990;32:590-601.
Teplin SW, Burchinal M, Johnson-Martin N, Humphry RA, Kraybill EN. Neurodevelopmental, health, and growth status at age 6 years of children
with birth weights less than 1001 grams. Pediatrics.1991;118:768-777.
Levy-Shiff R, Einat G, Mogilner MB, Lerman M, Krikler R. Biological and environmental correlates of developmental outcome of
prematurely born infants in early adolescence. J Pediatr Psychol.1994;19:63-78.
Hall A, McLeod A, Counsell C, Thomson L, Mutch L. School attainment, cognitive ability and motor function in a total
Scottish very-low-birthweight population at eight years: a controlled study. Dev Med Child Neurol.1995;37:1037-1050.
Sommerfelt K, Ellertsen B, Markestad T. Parental factors in cognitive outcome of non-handicapped low birthweight
infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.1995;73:F135-F142.
Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, Marlow N. Cognitive and educational outcome of very-low-birthweight children
in early adolescence. Dev Med Child Neurol.1998;40:652-660.
Stjernqvist K, Svenningsen NW. Ten-year follow-up of children born before 29 gestational weeks: health,
cognitive development, behaviour and school achievement. Acta Paediatr.1999;88:557-562.
Wolke D, Meyer R. Cognitive status, language attainment, and prereading skills of 6-year-old
very preterm children and their peers: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study. Dev Med Child Neurol.1999;41:94-109.
Saigal S, Hoult LA, Streiner DL, Stoskopf BL, Rosenbaum PL. School difficulties at adolescence in a regional cohort of children
who were extremely low birth weight. Pediatrics.2000;105:325-331.
Taylor HG, Klein N, Minich NM, Hack M. Middle-school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight. Child Dev.2000;71:1495-1511.
Rickards AL, Kelly EA, Doyle LW, Callanan C. Cognition, academic progress, behavior and self-concept at 14 years
of very low birth weight children. J Dev Behav Pediatr.2001;22:11-18.
Szatmari P, Saigal S, Rosenbaum P, Campbell D, King S. Psychiatric disorders at five years among children with birthweights
less than 1000 g: a regional perspective. Dev Med Child Neurol.1990;32:954-962.
Ross G, Lipper EG, Auld PA. Educational status and school-related abilities of very low birth weight
premature children. Pediatrics.1991;88:1125-1134.
Hack M, Breslau N, Aram D, Weissman B, Klein N, Borawski-Clark E. The effect of very low birth weight and social risk on neurocognitive
abilities at school age. J Dev Behav Pediatr.1992;13:412-420.
Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, Marlow N. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and other psychiatric outcomes
in very low birthweight children at 12 years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.1997;38:931-941.
Whitfield MF, Grunau RV, Holsti L. Extremely premature (< or = 800 g) schoolchildren: multiple areas
of hidden disability. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.1997;77:F85-F90.
Horwood LJ, Mogridge N, Darlow BA. Cognitive, educational, and behavioural outcomes at 7 to 8 years in
a national very low birthweight cohort. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.1998;79:F12-F20.
Stevenson CJ, Blackburn P, Pharoah PO. Longitudinal study of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.1999;81:F5-F9.
McCarton CM, Brooks-Gunn J, Wallace IF.
et al. Results at age 8 years of early intervention for low-birth-weight premature
infants: the Infant Health and Development Program. JAMA.1997;277:126-132.
Escalona SK. Babies at double hazard: early development of infants at biologic and
social risk. Pediatrics.1982;70:670-676.
Klebanov PK, Brooks-Gunn J, McCormick MC. Classroom behavior of very low birth weight elementary school children. Pediatrics.1994;94:700-708.
Grantham-McGregor SM, Lira PI, Ashworth A, Morris SS, Assuncao AM. The development of low birth weight term infants and the effects of
the environment in northeast Brazil. Pediatrics.1998;132:661-666.
Resnick MB, Gueorguieva RV, Carter RL.
et al. The impact of low birth weight, perinatal conditions, and sociodemographic
factors on educational outcome in kindergarten [serial online]. Pediatrics.1999;104:e74.
Sameroff AJ, Seifer R, Barocas R, Zax M, Greenspan S. Intelligence quotient scores of 4-year-old children: social-environmental
risk factors. Pediatrics.1987;79:343-350.
Gross SJ, Mettelman BB, Dye TD, Slagle TA. Impact of family structure and stability on academic outcome in preterm
children at 10 years of age. Pediatrics.2001;138:169-175.
Gregoire G, Derderian F, Le Lorier J. Selecting the language of the publications included in a meta-analysis:
is there a Tower of Babel bias? J Clin Epidemiol.1995;48:159-163.
Evers-Embden B, Scholte EM. Leerprestaties en neurologische status praesens van prematuren, prematue-dysmaturen
en dysmaturen op 8-jarige leeftijd. Tijdschr Kindergeneeskunde.1983;51:85-94.
Lubetzky O, Weitzman A, Gilat I, Tyano S. Premature birth and cognitive functioning in adolescence [in Hebrew]. Harefuah.1999;137:380-383.
Finnstrom O, Leijon I, Samuelsson S.
et al. Skolsvarigheter vanliga hos barn med mycket lag fodelsevikt: extra
uppmarksamhet och stod behovs vid skolstart. Lakartidningen.2000;97:3492-3495.
Burguet A, Monnet E, Roth P.
et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome of premature infants born at less than 33
weeks of gestational age and not cerebral palsy at the age of 5 years [in
French]. Arch Pediatr.2000;7:357-368.
Avery M, Richardson D. History and epidemiology. In: Taeusch H, Ballard R, eds. Avery's Diseases
of the Newborn. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1998:1-12.
Peterson BS, Vohr B, Staib LH.
et al. Regional brain volume abnormalities and long-term cognitive outcome
in preterm infants. JAMA.2000;284:1939-1947.
Juni P. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis. JAMA.1999;282:1054-1060.
Chaikind S, Corman H. The impact of low birthweight on special education costs. J Health Econ.1991;10:291-311.
Bhutta AT, Anand KJS. Abnormal cognition and behavior in preterm neonates linked to smaller
brain volumes. Trends Neurosci.2001;24:129-132.
Stewart AL, Rifkin L, Amess PN.
et al. Brain structure and neurocognitive and behavioural function in adolescents
who were born very preterm. Lancet.1999;353:1653-1657.
Rabinowicz T, de Courten-Myers GM, Petetot JM, Xi G, de los Reyes E. Human cortex development: estimates of neuronal numbers indicate major
loss late during gestation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol.1996;55:320-328.
Mitani A, Watanabe M, Kataoka K. Functional change of NMDA receptors related to enhancement of susceptibility
to neurotoxicity in the developing pontine nucleus. J Neurosci.1998;18:7941-7952.
Breslau N, Chilcoat HD, Johnson EO, Andreski P, Lucia VC. Neurologic soft signs and low birthweight: their association and neuropsychiatric
implications. Biol Psychiatry.2000;47:71-79.
Singer LT, Salvator A, Guo S, Collin M, Lilien L, Baley J. Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after the birth
of a very low-birth-weight infant. JAMA.1999;281:799-805.
Robson AL. Low birth weight and parenting stress during early childhood. J Pediatr Psychol.1997;22:297-311.
Rasco L, Skinner RD, Garcia-Rill E. Effect of age on sensory gating of the sleep state-dependent P1/P50
midlatency auditory evoked potential. Sleep Res Online [serial online].2000;3:97-105.
Gardner JM, Karmel BZ. Attention and arousal in preterm and full-term neonates. In: Field T, Sostek A, eds. Infants Born at Risk:
Physiological, Perceptual and Cognitive Processes. New York, NY: Grune
& Stratton; 1983:69-98.
Gladman G, Chiswick ML. Skin conductance and arousal in the newborn. AJDC.1990;65:1063-1066.
Langkamp DL, Brazy JE. Risk for later school problems in preterm children who do not cooperate
for preschool developmental testing. Pediatrics.1999;135:756-760.
Brooks-Gunn J, McCarton CM, Casey PH.
et al. Early intervention in low-birth-weight premature infants: results through
age 5 years from the Infant Health and Development Program. JAMA.1994;272:1257-1262.