US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years
of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md: Centers for Disease Control; 1989. DHHS publication
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Ninth Special Report to Congress on Alcohol and Health. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 1997. NIH publication
US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon
General. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1996.
National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Health
Implications of Obesity. Health implications of obesity. Ann Intern Med.1985;103:1073-1077.
Evans L. The effectiveness of safety belts in preventing fatalities. Accid Anal Prev.1986;18:229-241.
McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA.1993;270:2207-2212.
Kerlikowske K, Grady D, Rubim SM, Sandrock C, Ernster VL. Efficacy of screening mammography: a meta-analysis. JAMA.1995;273:149-154.
Cramer DW. The role of cervical cytology in the declining morbidity and mortality
of cervical cancer. Cancer.1974;34:2018-2027.
Newcomb PA, Norfleet RG, Storer BE, Surawicz TS, Marcus PM. Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst.1992;84:1572-1575.
Atkinson W, Humiston SG, Pollard B. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable
Diseases. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1997.
National Cholesterol Education Program. Second Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation,
and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 1993. Publication 93-3095.
Institute of Medicine. The Future of Public Health. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 1988.
US Public Health Service. Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for
the Nation. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1980.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and
Disease Prevention Objectives. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1990.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2000.
Holtzman D, Powell-Griner E, Bolen JC, Rhodes L. State- and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics--Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996 and 1997. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ.2000;49:1-39.
Siegel M, Mowery PD, Pechacek TP.
et al. Trends in adult cigarette smoking in California compared with the rest
of the United States, 1978-1994. Am J Public Health.2000;90:372-379.
National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2000, With Adolescent Chartbook. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000.
Hahn RA, Teutsch SM, Rothenberg RB, Marks JS. Excess deaths from nine chronic diseases in the United States, 1986. JAMA.1990;264:2654-2659.
Byers T, Anda R, McQueen D.
et al. The correspondence between coronary heart disease mortality and risk
factor prevalence among states in the United States, 1991-1992. Prev Med.1998;27:311-316.
Nelson DE, Tomar SL, Mowery P, Siegel PZ. Trends in smokeless tobacco use among men in four states, 1988-1993. Am J Public Health.1996;86:1300-1303.
Blackman DK, Bennett EM, Miller DS. Trends in self-reported use of mammograms (1989-1997) and Papanicolaou
tests (1991-1997)--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ.1999;48:1-22.
State-specific cholesterol screening trends—United States, 1991-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2000;49:750-755.
Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. JAMA.1999;282:1519-1522.
Singleton JA, Greby SM, Wooten KG, Walker FJ, Strikas R. Influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus toxoid vaccination of adults—United
States, 1993-1997. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ.2000;49(SS-09):39-62.
Trends in screening for colorectal cancer—United States, 1997
and 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2001;50:162-166.
Marks J, Hogelin G, Gentry E.
et al. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys, I: state-specific prevalence estimates
of behavioral risk factors. Am J Prev Med.1985;1:1-8.
Powell-Griner E, Anderson JE, Murphy W. State- and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics—Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1994 and 1995. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ.1997;46:1-31.
Nelson DE, Holtzman D, Waller M, Leutzinger C, Condon K. Objectives and design of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. In: Proceedings of the 1998 American Statistical Association Section
on Survey Research Methods; August 9-13, 1998; Dallas, Tex.
Ryan C, Schober S, Turczyn K. Operational Definitions for Year 2000 Objectives:
Priority Area 20, Immunization and Infectious Diseases. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; February
1997. Healthy People 2000 statistical note 11.
Ryan C, Klein RJ, Wagener D. Operational Definitions for Year 2000 Objectives:
Priority Area 21, Clinical Preventive Services. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; December
1998. Healthy People 2000 statistical note 17.
Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 1992, and changes
in the definition of current cigarette smoking. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1994;43:342-346.
Siegel PZ, Qualters JR, Mowery PD, Campostrini S, Leutzinger C, McQueen DV. Subgroup-specific effects of questionnaire wording on population-based
estimates of mammography prevalence. Am J Public Health.2001;91:817-820.
Liu S, Siegel PZ, Brewer RD, Mokdad AH, Sleet DA, Serdula M. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving: results from a national self-reported
survey of health behaviors. JAMA.1997;277:122-125.
Jacobs DR, Ainsworth BE, Hartman TJ, Leon AS. A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Med Sci Sports Exerc.1993;25:81-91.
WHO Expert Committee on Physical Status. The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry: Report
of a WHO Expert Committee. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1995. World Health
Organization technical report series 854.
Streff FM, Wagenaar AC. Are there really shortcuts? estimating seat belt use with self-report
measures. Accid Anal Prev.1989;21:509-516.
Nelson DE. The validity of self-reported data on injury prevention behavior: lessons
from observational and self-reported surveys of safety belt use in the United
States. Inj Prev.1996;2:67-69.
NIH Consensus Statement. Breast cancer screening for women ages 40-49. NIH Consens Statement.1997;15:1-35.
SUDAAN User's Manual, Release 8.0, Vol. I. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2000:233-247.
Korn EL, Graubard BI. Analysis of Health Surveys. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1999:128-29.
Blaine TM, Forster JL, Hennrikus D, O'Neil S, Wolfson M, Pham H. Creating tobacco control policy at the local level: implementation
of a direct action organizing approach. Health Educ Behav.1997;24:640-651.
National Cancer Institute. State and Local Legislative Action to Reduce Tobacco
Use. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 2000. NIH publication
US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2000.
Nephew TM, Williams GD, Stinson FS, Nguyen K, Dufour MC. Apparent Per Capita Alcohol Consumption: National,
State, and Regional Trends, 1977-98. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism;
2000. Surveillance report 55.
Greenfield TK, Midanik LT, Rogers JD. A 10-year national trend study of alcohol consumption, 1984-1995: is
the period of declining drinking over? Am J Public Health.2000;90:47-52.
Alcohol Policies in the United States: Highlights from the 50
States. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Alcohol Epidemiology Program;
Perry CL, Williams CL, Komro KA.
et al. Project Northland High School interventions: community action to reduce
adolescent alcohol use. Health Educ Behav.2000;27:29-49.
Lussky R. Minnesota responds to fetal alcohol syndrome. Minn Med.1998;81:35-38.
Ross HL, Simon S, Cleary J. License plate confiscation for persistent alcohol impaired drivers. Accid Anal Prev.1996;28:53-61.
Galuska DA, Serdula M, Pamuk E, Siegel P, Byers T. Trends in overweight among US adults from 1987 to 1993: a multistate
telephone survey. Am J Public Health.1996;86:1729-1735.
Flegal KM, Carrol MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity trends in the United States: prevalence and
trends, 1969-1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.1998;22:39-47.
Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemic of obesity in the United States. JAMA.2000;284:1650-1651.
Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA.2001;286:1195-1200.
Nelson DE, Bolen J, Krasny M. Trends in safety belt use by demographics and by type of state safety
belt law, 1987-1993. Am J Public Health.1998;88:245-249.
Anderson LM, May DS. Has the use of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening increased
in the United States? Am J Public Health.1995;85:840-842.
National Center for Health Statistics. Healthy People 2000 Review, 1993. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 1994.
Horton JA, Cruess DF, Romans MC. Compliance with mammography screening guidelines: 1995 mammography
attitudes and usage study report. Womens Health Issues.1996;6:239-245.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.
American Cancer Society. Guidelines for the Cancer-Related Checkup: An Update. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 1993.
Screening for colorectal cancer—United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1999;48:116-121.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures, 1999. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 1999. Publication 5008.99.
Hingson R, Strunin L. Validity, reliability, and generalizability in studies of AIDS knowledge,
attitudes, and behavioral risks based on subject self-report. Am J Prev Med.1993;9:62-64.
Sudman SN, Bradburn NM. Effects of time and memory factors on response in surveys. J Am Stat Assoc.1973;68:805-815.
Newell SA, Girgis A, Sanson-Fisher RW, Savolainen NJ. The accuracy of self-reported health behaviors and risk factors relating
to cancer and cardiovascular disease in the general population: a critical
review. Am J Prev Med.1999;17:211-229.
King ES, Rimer BK, Trock B, Balshen A, Engstrom P. How valid are mammography self-reports? Am J Public Health.1990;80:1386-1388.
Najar MF, Rowland M. Anthropometric reference data and prevalence of overweight, United States, 1976-80. Vital Health Stat 11.1987;(238):1-73.
Thornberry OT, Massey JT. Trends in United States telephone coverage across time and subgroups. In: Groves RM, Biemer PP, Lyberg LE, Massey JT, Nichols WL, eds. Telephone Survey Methodology. New York, NY: John Wiley
& Sons; 1988:25-49.
Massey JT, O'Connor D, Krotki K. Response rates in random digit dialing (RDD) telephone surveys. In: Proceedings of the 1997 American Statistical Association Section
on Survey Research Methods; August 10-14, 1997; Anaheim, Calif.