US Department of Health and Human Services. President's Race and Health Disparities Initiative 2000. Available at: http://www.omhrc.gov. Accessibility verified
March 20, 2002.
Cowie CC, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Savage PJ, Moll PP, Hawthorne VM. Disparities in incidence of diabetic end-stage renal disease according
to race and type of diabetes. N Engl J Med.1989;321:1074-1079.
Rostand SG, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Pate BA. Racial differences in the incidence of treatment for end-stage renal
disease. N Engl J Med.1982;306:1276-1279.
Pugh JA, Stern MP, Haffner SM, Eifler CW, Zapata M. Excess incidence of treatment of end-stage renal disease in Mexican
Americans. Am J Epidemiol.1988;127:135-144.
Lavery LA, Ashry HR, van Houtum W, Pugh JA, Harkless LB, Basu S. Variation in the incidence and proportion of diabetes-related amputations
in minorities. Diabetes Care.1996;19:48-52.
Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic
Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002.
Krieger N. Overcoming the absence of socioeconomic data in medical records: validation
and application of a census-based methodology. Am J Public Health.1992;82:703-710.
Gordon NP, Kaplan GA. Some evidence refuting the HMO "favorable selection" hypothesis: the
case of Kaiser Permanente. Adv Health Econ Health Serv Res.1991;12:19-39.
Hiatt RA, Friedman GD. Characteristics of patients referred for treatment of end-stage renal
disease in a defined population. Am J Public Health.1982;72:829-833.
Ferrara A, Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Liu JY, Selby JV. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with better glycemic control
in women with type 2 diabetes: the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes
Registry. Diabetes Care.2001;24:1144-1150.
Iribarren C, Karter AJ, Go AS.
et al. Glycemic control and heart failure among adult patients with diabetes. Circulation.2001;103:2668-2673.
Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Darbinian JA.
et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and glycemic control: the Northern
California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry. Am J Med.2001;111:1-9.
Karter AJ, Ferrara A, Darbinian J, Ackerson LM, Selby JV. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: language and financial barriers in
a managed care population with diabetes. Diabetes Care.2000;23:477-483.
Karter AJ, Newman B, Rowell S.
et al. Large-scale collection of family history data and recruitment of informative
families for genetic analysis. J Registry Manage.1998;25:7-12.
Karter AJ, Rowell SE, Ackerson LM.
et al. Excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes: the Northern California
Kaiser Permanente Diabetes registry. Diabetes Care.1999;22:938-943.
Selby JV. Linking automated databases for research in managed care settings. Ann Intern Med.1997;127:719-724.
Selby JV, Ettinger B, Swain B, Brown JB. First 20 months' experience with use of Metformin for type 2 diabetes
in a large health maintenance organization. Diabetes Care.1999;22:38-44.
Selby JV, Ray GT, Zhang D, Colby CJ. Excess costs of medical care for patients with diabetes in a managed
care population. Diabetes Care.1997;20:1396-1402.
Selby JV, Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Ferrara A, Liu J. Developing a prediction rule from automated clinical databases to identify
high-risk patients in a large population with diabetes. Diabetes Care.2001;24:1547-1555.
International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical
Modification. Washington, DC: Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human
Arellano MG, Petersen GR, Petitti DB, Smith RE. The California Automated Mortality Linkage System (CAMLIS). Am J Public Health.1984;74:1324-1330.
McKee PA, Castelli WP, McNamara PM, Kannel WB. The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham Study. N Engl J Med.1971;285:1441-1446.
Selby JV, Zhang D. Risk factors for lower extremity amputation in persons with diabetes. Diabetes Care.1995;18:509-516.
et al. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation,
and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute; 1998.
Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Stensel V, Forsberg RC, Smith DG. Risk factors for diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy: results of
the Seattle Prospective Diabetic Foot Study. Diabetes Care.1997;20:1162-1167.
Christen WG, Manson JE, Bubes V, Glynn RJ.for the Sorbinil Retinopathy Trial Research Group. Risk factors for progression of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in
type 1 diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol.1999;150:1142-1151.
Reiber GE, Pecoraro RE, Koepsell TD. Risk factors for amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus: a case-control
study. Ann Intern Med.1992;117:97-105.
Diabetes Surveillance, 1997. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1997.
DeStefano F, Newman J. Comparison of coronary heart disease mortality risk between black and
white people with diabetes. Ethn Dis.1993;3:145-151.
Stern MP, Haffner SM. Type II diabetes and its complications in Mexican Americans. Diabetes Metab Rev.1990;6:29-45.
Haffner SM, Mitchell BD, Stern MP, Hazuda HP. Macrovascular complications in Mexican Americans with type II diabetes. Diabetes Care.1991;14:665-671.
Rewers M, Shetterly SM, Baxter J, Marshall JA, Hamman RF. Prevalence of coronary heart disease in subjects with normal and impaired
glucose tolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a biethnic
Colorado population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Am J Epidemiol.1992;135:1321-1330.
Leggetter S, Chaturvedi N, Filler JH, Edmonds ME. Ethnicity and risk of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation:
a population-based case-control study of African Caribbeans and Europeans
in the United Kingdom. Arch Intern Med.2002;162:73-78.
Most RS, Sinnock P. The epidemiology of lower extremity amputations in diabetic individuals. Diabetes Care.1983;6:87-91.
Miller AD, Van Buskirk A, Verhoek-Oftedahl W, Miller ER. Diabetes-related lower extremity amputations in New Jersey, 1979 to
1981. J Med Soc N J.1985;82:723-726.
Gujral JS, McNally PG, O'Malley BP, Burden AC. Ethnic differences in the incidence of lower extremity amputation secondary
to diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med.1993;10:271-274.
Incidence of treatment for end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetes
mellitus, by race/ethnicity—Colorado, 1982-1989. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1992;41:845-848.
Pugh JA, Medina RA, Cornell JC, Basu S. NIDDM is the major cause of diabetic end-stage renal disease: more
evidence from a tri-ethnic community. Diabetes.1995;44:1375-1380.
Burden AC, McNally PG, Feehally J, Walls J. Increased incidence of end-stage renal failure secondary to diabetes
mellitus in Asian ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Diabet Med.1992;9:641-645.
Schneider EC, Zaslavsky AM, Epstein AM. Racial disparities in the quality of care for enrollees in Medicare
managed care. JAMA.2002;287:1288-1294.
Mayberry RM, Mili F, Ofili E. Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care. Med Care Res Rev.2000;57(suppl 1):108-145.
Pugh JA, Tuley MR, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. The influence of outpatient insurance coverage on the microvascular
complications of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Mexican Americans. J Diabetes Complications.1992;6:236-241.
Harris MI. Racial and ethnic differences in health insurance coverage for adults
with diabetes. Diabetes Care.1999;22:1679-1682.
Wagstaff A, van Doorslaer E. Income inequality and health: what does the literature tell us? Annu Rev Public Health.2000;21:543-567.
Backlund E, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ. A comparison of the relationships of education and income with mortality:
the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Soc Sci Med.1999;49:1373-1384.
Lantz PM, House JS, Lepkowski JM, Williams DR, Mero RP, Chen J. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: results from
a nationally representative prospective study of US adults. JAMA.1998;279:1703-1708.
Robbins JM, Vaccarino V, Zhang H, Kasl SV. Excess type 2 diabetes in African-American women and men aged 40-74
and socioeconomic status: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey. J Epidemiol Community Health.2000;54:839-845.
Burge MR, Lucero S, Rassam AG, Schade DS. What are the barriers to medical care for patients with newly diagnosed
diabetes mellitus? Diabetes Obes Metab.2000;2:351-354.
Reese S, Owen P, Bender B, Potts G.
et al. Levels of diabetes-related preventive-care practices: United States,
1997-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2000;49:954-958.
Freeman HP, Payne R. Racial injustice in health care. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1045-1047.
Kahn KL, Pearson ML, Harrison ER.
et al. Health care for black and poor hospitalized Medicare patients. JAMA.1994;271:1169-1174.
Ayanian JZ. Race, class, and the quality of medical care. JAMA.1994;271:1207-1208.
Conigliaro J, Whittle J, Good CB.
et al. Understanding racial variation in the use of coronary revascularization
procedures: the role of clinical factors. Arch Intern Med.2000;160:1329-1335.
Ayanian JZ, Cleary PD, Weissman JS, Epstein AM. The effect of patients' preferences on racial differences in access
to renal transplantation. N Engl J Med.1999;341:1661-1669.
Chaturvedi N, Stephenson JM, Fuller JH. The relationship between socioeconomic status and diabetes control
and complications in the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabetes Care.1996;19:423-430.
Connolly VM, Kesson CM. Socioeconomic status and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk
factors in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care.1996;19:419-422.
Chaturvedi N, Jarrett J, Shipley MJ, Fuller JH. Socioeconomic gradient in morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes:
cohort study findings from the Whitehall Study and the WHO Multinational Study
of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. BMJ.1998;316:100-105.
Adler NE, Newman K. Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Aff (Millwood).2002;21:60-76.
Soumerai SB, Ross-Degnan D, Avorn J, McLaughlin T, Choodnovskiy I. Effects of Medicaid drug-payment limits on admission to hospitals and
nursing homes. N Engl J Med.1991;325:1072-1077.
Williams MV, Parker RM, Baker DW.
et al. Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public
Gornick ME, Eggers PW, Reilly TW.
et al. Effects of race and income on mortality and use of services among Medicare
beneficiaries. N Engl J Med.1996;335:791-799.
van Ryn M, Burke J. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians'
perceptions of patients. Soc Sci Med.2000;50:813-828.
Krieger N, Sidney S, Coakley E. Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications
for public health research. Am J Public Health.1998;88:1308-1313.
Schneeweiss S, Maclure M, Walker AM, Grootendorst P, Soumerai SB. On the evaluation of drug benefits policy changes with longitudinal
claims data: the policy maker's versus the clinician's perspective. Health Policy.2001;55:97-109.
Ferguson R, Grim CE, Opgenorth TJ. A familial risk of chronic renal failure among blacks on dialysis? J Clin Epidemiol.1988;41:1189-1196.
Freedman BI, Tuttle AB, Spray BJ. Familial predisposition to nephropathy in African-Americans with non-insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus. Am J Kidney Dis.1995;25:710-713.
Risch N, Burchard E, Zid E, Tang H. Categorizations of humans in biomedical research: genes, race, and
disease. Genome Biol.In press.
Martin TL, Selby JV, Zhang D. Physician and patient prevention practices in NIDDM in a large urban
managed-care organization. Diabetes Care.1995;18:1124-1132.
Rosen AB, Karter AJ, Schneider EC, Liu JY, Selby JV. Lack of racial and ethnic disparities in ACE-inhibitor use among patients
with diabetes. Paper presented at: Society for General Internal Medicine; May 2-4,
2002; Atlanta, Ga.
The Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study: a
multicenter study of diabetes in managed care. Diabetes Care.2002;25:386-389.
Bruno G, Cavallo-Perin P, Bargero G.
et al. Cardiovascular risk profile of type 2 diabetic patients cared for by
general practitioners or at a diabetes clinic: a population-based study. J Clin Epidemiol.1999;52:413-417.
Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA.
et al. Diabetes trends in the US: 1990-1998. Diabetes Care.2000;23:1278-1283.
Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC.
et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose
tolerance in US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care.1998;21:518-524.
Sloan NR. Ethnic distribution of diabetes mellitus in Hawaii. JAMA.1963;183:419-424.
Diabetes in America. Bethesda, Md: National Diabetes Data Group, National Institute of
Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 1995.