Context Substantial concern surrounds the potential health effects of the anthrax
vaccine, particularly the potential adverse effects on reproductive processes.
Objective To determine whether receipt of anthrax vaccination by reproductive-aged
women has an effect on pregnancy rates.
Design, Setting, and Patients Cohort study, based on information from a computer database, of women
aged 17 to 44 years who were stationed at Fort Stewart, Ga, or Hunter Army
Airfield, Ga, from January 1999 through March 2000.
Main Outcome Measures Pregnancy and birth rates and adverse birth outcomes.
Results Of a total of 4092 women, 3136 received at least 1 dose of the anthrax
vaccine. There was a total of 513 pregnancies, with 385 following at least
1 dose of anthrax vaccine. The pregnancy rate ratio (before and after adjustment
for marital status, race, and age) comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated
women was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.2; P = .60). There were 353 live births and 25 pregnancies lost to follow-up.
The birth odds ratio after anthrax vaccination (before and after adjustment
for marital status and age) was 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.4; P = .55). After adjusting for age, the odds ratio for adverse birth
outcome after receiving at least 1 dose of anthrax vaccination was 0.9 (95%
CI, 0.4-2.4; P = .88). However, this study did not
have sufficient power to detect adverse birth outcomes.
Conclusion Anthrax vaccination had no effect on pregnancy and birth rates or adverse