Laga M, Alary M, Nzila N.
et al. Condom promotion, sexually transmitted diseases treatment, and declining
incidence of HIV-1 infection in female Zairian sex workers. Lancet.1994;344:246-248.
Fleming DT, Wasserheit J. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice:
the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission
of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect.1999;75:3-17.
Rottingen JA, Cameron WD, Garnett GP. A systematic review of the epidemiologic interactions between classic
sexually transmitted diseases and HIV: how much really is known? Sex Transm Dis.2001;28:579-597.
Pack RP, DiClemente RJ, Hook EW, Kim M. High prevalence of asymptomatic STDs in incarcerated minority male
youth: a case for screening. Sex Transm Dis.2000;27:175-177.
Brodine SK, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA.
et al. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease prevalence in four military
populations: application of DNA amplification assays for chlamydia and gonorrhea
screening. J Infect Dis.1998;178:1202-1204.
McNagny SE, Parker RM, Zenilman JM, Lewis JS. Urinary leukocyte esterase test: a screening method for the detection
of asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in men. J Infect Dis.1992;165:573-576.
Potterat JJ, King RD. A new approach to gonorrhea control: the asymptomatic man and incidence
Institute of Medicine. The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted
Diseases. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1996.
Ku L, Sonenstein FL, Turner CF, Aral SO, Black CM. The promise of integrated representative surveys about sexually transmitted
diseases and behavior. Sex Transm Dis.1997;24:299-309.
Ku L, St Louis M, Black CM.
et al. Risk behaviors, medical care, and chlamydial infection among young
men in the United States. Am J Public Health.In press.
Zenilman J. New paradigms for sexually transmitted diseases surveillance and field
studies. Sex Transm Dis.1997;24:310-311.
Bureau of the Census. Population estimates for counties by age and sex: annual time series
July 1, 1990 to July 1, 1999 (CO-99-9). Washington, DC: Population Estimates Program, Population Division,
US Census Bureau; August 30, 2000. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/county/cas/cas24.txt. Accessed December 4, 2001.
Turner CF, Ku L, Rogers SM, Lindberg LD, Pleck JE, Sonenstein FL. Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: increased reporting
with computer survey technology. Science.1998;280:867-873.
Turner CF, Forsyth BH, O'Reilly J.
et al. Automated self-interviewing and the survey measurement of sensitive
behaviors. In: Couper M, Baker R, Bethlehem J, et al, eds. Computer-Assisted Survey Information Collection. New York, NY: Wiley
& Sons; 1998.
Rogers SM, Gribble JG, Turner CF, Miller HG. Entretiens autoadministré sur ordinateur et mesure des comportements
sensibles [Computerized self-interviewing and the measurement of sensitive
Turner CF, Gribble JN, Al-Tayyib AA, Chromy JR. Falsification in epidemiologic surveys: detection and remediation:
No. 53. In: Technical Papers on Health and Behavior Measurement. Washington, DC: Research Triangle Institute, Program in Health and
Behavior Measurement. Copies available by e-mailing: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Bieler GS. SUDAAN Users Manual. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 1996.
Not Available. Stata Statistical Software: Release 6.0. College Station, Tex: Stata Corp; 1999.
Chernesky MA, Jang D, Lee H.
et al. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections
in men and women by testing first-void urine by ligase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol.1994;32:2682-2685.
Lee HH, Chernesky MA, Schachter J.
et al. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary
infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine. Lancet.1995;345:213-216.
Stary A, Ching SF, Teodorowicz L, Lee H. Comparison of ligase chain reaction and culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genital and extragenital specimens. J Clin Microbiol.1997;35:239-242.
Smith KR, Ching S, Lee H.
et al. Evaluation of ligase chain reaction for use with urine for identification
of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in females attending a sexually
transmitted disease clinic. J Clin Microbiol.1995;33:455-457.
Quinn TC, Welsh L, Lentz A.
et al. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted
disease clinics. J Clin Microbiol.1996;34:1401-1406.
Quinn TC. Recent advances in diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis.1994;21:S19-S27.
Turner CF, Rogers SM, Miller HG, Quinn T, Zenilman J. Prevalence of untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia in a representative
sample of Baltimore adults: preliminary estimates. Presented at: 13th meeting of the International Society for Sexually
Transmitted Diseases Research; Denver, Colo; July 11-14, 1999.
Parks KS, Dixon PB, Richey CM, Hook III EW. Spontaneous clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis
infection in untreated patients. Sex Transm Dis.1997;24:229-235.
Whittington WL, Holmes KK. Unique gonococcal phenotype associated with asymptomatic infection
in men and with erroneous diagnosis of nongonococcal urethritis. J Infect Dis.2000;181:1044-1048.
Dean D, Suchland RJ, Stamm WE. Evidence for long-term cervical persistence of chlamydia trachomatis
by omp1 genotyping. J Infect Dis.2000;182:909-916.
Mehta SD, Rothman RE, Kelen GD, Quinn TC, Zenilman JM. Unsuspected gonorrhea and chlamydia in patients of an urban adult emergency
department: a critical population for STD control intervention. Sex Transm Dis.2001;28:33-39.
Rogers SM. Transmissibility of GC and CT diagnosed using NAAT [CRISP abstract
for grant 1R01-HD039633-01A1]. Available at: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov. Accessed December