Seneff MG, Wagner DP, Wagner RP.
et al. Hospital and 1-year survival of patients admitted to intensive care
units with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA.1995;274:1852-1857.
Amato MBP, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM.
et al. Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute
respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med.1998;338:347-354.
Stewart TE, Meade MO, Cook DJ.
et al. Evaluation of a ventilation strategy to prevent barotrauma in patients
at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med.1998;338:355-361.
Brochard L, Roudot-Thoraval F, Roupie E.
et al. Tidal volume reduction for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury
in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1998;158:1831-1838.
Brower RG, Shanholtz CB, Fessler HE.
et al. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing traditional
versus reduced tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
patients. Crit Care Med.1999;27:1492-1498.
The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal
volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1301-1308.
Zilberberg MD, Epstein SK. Acute lung injury in the medical ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1998;157:1159-1164.
Roupie E, Lepage E, Wysocki M.
et al. for the SRLF Collaborative Group on Mechanical Ventilation. Prevalence, etiologies and outcome of the acute respiratory distress
syndrome among hypoxemic ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med.1999;25:920-929.
Suchyta MR, Clemmer TP, Elliot CG.
et al. The adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest.1992;101:1074-1079.
Doyle RL, Szaflarski N, Modin GW.
et al. Identification of patients with acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1995;152:1818-1824.
Suchyta M, Morris AH, Thompson T.for the NIH/ARDS Network. Attributes and outcomes of randomized vs excluded patients in ALI/ARDS
clinical trials [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2000;161:A210.
Vasilyev SS, Chaap RN, Mortensen JD. Hospital survival rates of patients with acute respiratory failure
in modern respiratory intensive care units. Chest.1995;107:1083-1088.
Luhr OW, Antonsen K, Karlson M.
et al. and the ARF Study Group. Incidence and mortality after acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory
distress syndrome in Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1999;159:1849-1861.
Behrendt CE. Acute respiratory failure in the United States. Chest.2000;118:1100-1105.
Esteban A, Anzueto A, Alía I.
et al. How is mechanical ventilation employed in the intensive care unit? Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2000;161:1450-1458.
Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL.
et al. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1994;149:818-824.
Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB.
et al. ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference. Chest.1992;101:1644-1655.
Not Available. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am Rev Respir Dis.1989;139:1058-1059.
Esteban A, Frutos F, Tobin MJ.
et al. A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med.1995;332:345-350.
Brochard L, Rauss A, Benito S.
et al. Comparison of three methods of gradual withdrawal from ventilatory
support during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1994;150:896-903.
Esteban A, Alía I, Gordo F.
et al. Extubation outcome after spontaneous breathing trials with T-tube or
pressure support ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1997;156:459-465.
Valta P, Uusaro A, Nunes S.
et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med.1999;27:2367-2374.
Navarrete-Navarro P, Ruiz-Bailen M, Rivera-Fernandez R.
et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in trauma patients. Intensive Care Med.2000;26:1624-1629.
Nevins ML, Epstein SK. Predictors of outcome for patients with COPD requiring invasive mechanical
Ely EW, Evans GW, Haponik EF. Mechanical ventilation in a cohort of elderly patients admitted to
an intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med.1999;131:96-104.
Kollef MH, O'Brien JD, Silver P. The impact of gender on outcome from mechanical ventilation. Chest.1997;111:434-441.
Steiner T, Mendoza G, De Georgia M.
et al. Prognosis of stroke patients requiring mechanical ventilation in a
neurological critical care unit. Stroke.1997;28:711-715.
Esteban A, Alía I, Ibañez J, Benito S, Tobin MJ.the Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. Modes of mechanical ventilation and weaning. Chest.1994;106:1188-1193.
Epstein SK, Vuong V. Lack of influence of gender on outcome of mechanically ventilated medical
ICU patients. Chest.1999;116:732-739.
Ely EW, Baker AM, Evans GW, Haponik EF. The distribution of costs of care in mechanically ventilated patients
with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit Care Med.2000;28:408-413.
Ferring M, Vincent JL. Is outcome from ARDS related to the severity of respiratory failure? Eur Respir J.1997;10:1297-1300.
Croce MA, Fabian TC, Davis KA, Gavin TJ. Early and late acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Trauma.1999;46:361-366.
Tobin MJ. Culmination of an era in research on the acute respiratory distress
syndrome. N Engl J Med.2000;342:1360-1361.
Krafft P, Fridrich P, Pernerstorfer T.
et al. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med.1996;22:519-529.
Sloane PJ, Gee MH, Gottlieb JE.
et al. A multicenter registry of patients with acute respiratory distress
syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis.1992;146:419-426.
Knaus WA, Sun X, Hakim RB, Wagner DP. Evaluation of definitions for adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1994;150:311-317.