Since 1956, the anatomy of the human genome has been described on the
basis of chromosome studies, gene mapping, and DNA sequencing. The gross anatomy
of Andreas Vesalius, published in 1543, played a leading role in the development
of modern medicine. The objective of this article is to show that knowledge
of genomic anatomy is having a comparably strong and pervasive influence on
all of medicine. The research revealing human genome anatomy is reviewed.
The insight provided by genome anatomy has brought about shifts of focus,
both in research and in the clinic, eg, from genomics to proteomic and from
the individually rare, single-gene disorders to common disorders. Genomic
anatomy permits medicine to become more predictive and preventive. At the
same time, diagnosis and treatment are rendered more sensitive, specific,
effective, and safe. Hazards in misuse and misunderstanding of the information
exist. Education of both the public and health professionals is vital if the
full benefits of neo-Vesalian medicine are to be realized.