Rose GA. The diagnosis of ischemic heart pain and intermittent claudication
in field surveys. Bull World Health Organ.1962;27:645-658.
Criqui MH, Denenberg JO, Bird CE, Fronek A, Klauber MR, Langer RD. The correlation between symptoms and non-invasive test results in patients
referred for peripheral arterial disease testing. Vasc Med.1996;1:65-71.
McDermott MM, Mehta S, Greenland P. Exertional leg symptoms other than intermittent claudication are common
in peripheral arterial disease. Arch Intern Med.1999;159:387-392.
McDermott MM, Fried L, Simonsick E, Ling S, Guralnik JM. Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease is independently associated
with impaired lower extremity functioning: the Women's Health and Aging Study. Circulation.2000;101:1007-1012.
McDermott MM, Kerwin DR, Liu K.
et al. Prevalence and significance of unrecognized lower extremity peripheral
arterial disease in general medicine practice. J Gen Intern Med.2001;16:384-390.
Hirsch AT, Criqui MC, Treat-Jacobson D.
et al. Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in
primary care. JAMA.2001;286:1317-1324.
Olin JW. The clinical evaluation and office based detection of peripheral arterial
disease. In: Hirsch AT, Olin FW, eds. An office-based approach to the diagnosis
and treatment of peripheral arterial disease, I: the epidemiology and practical
detection of peripheral arterial disease. In: The American
Journal of Medicine's Continuing Education Series. Belle Mead, NJ:
Excerpta Medica Inc; 1998;10-17.
Weitz JI, Byrne J, Clagett GP.
et al. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower
extremities: a critical review. Circulation.1996;94:3026-3049.
Newman AB, Siscovick DS, Manolio TA.
et al. Ankle-arm index as a marker of atherosclerosis in the Cardiovascular
Health Study. Circulation.1993;88:837-845.
Ogren M, Hedblad B, Isacsson SO, Janzon L, Jungquist G, Lindell SE. Ten-year cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in 68-year-old men
with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. BMJ.1995;310:1294-1298.
Bernstein EF, Fronek A. Current status of non-invasive tests in the diagnosis of peripheral
arterial disease. Surg Clin North Am.1982;62:473-487.
Hiatt WR, Hoag S, Hamman RF. Effect of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of peripheral arterial
disease: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Circulation.1995;91:1472-1479.
McDermott MM, Criqui MH, Liu K.
et al. The lower ankle brachial index calculated by averaging the dorsalis
pedis and posterior tibial arterial pressures is most closely associated with
leg functioning in peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg.2000;32:1164-1171.
Guralnik JM, Fried LP, Simonsick EM.
et al. The Women's Health and Aging Study: Health and Social
Characteristics of Older Women with Disability. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Aging; 1995. NIH publication
95-4009, appendix E.
Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D.
et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification
and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum.1991;34:505-514.
Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D.
et al. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum.1986;29:1039-1049.
Ettinger WH, Fried LP, Harris T.
et al. Self-reported causes of physical disability in older people: the Cardiovascular
Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc.1994;42:1035-1044.
Boult C, Kane RL, Louis TA.
et al. Chronic conditions that lead to functional limitation in the elderly. J Gerontol.1994;49:M28-M36.
Fried LP, Ettinger WH, Lind B, Newman AB, Gardin J.for the Cardiovascular Health Study Research Group. Physical disability in older adults: a physiological approach. J Clin Epidemiol.1994;47:747-760
Fried LP, Bandeen-Roche K, Kasper JD, Guralnik JM. Association of comorbidity with disability in older women: the Women's
Health and Aging Study. J Clin Epidemiol.1999;52:27-37.
McDermott MM, Liu K, Guralnik JM.
et al. The ankle brachial index independently predicts walking velocity and
walking endurance in peripheral arterial disease. J Am Geriatr Soc.1998;46:1355-1362.
Montgomery PS, Gardner AW. The clinical utility of a six-minute walk test in peripheral arterial
occlusive disease patients. J Am Geriatr Soc.1998;46:706-711.
Gardner AW, Womack CJ, Sieminski DJ, Montgomery PS, Killewich LA, Fonong T. Relationship between free-living daily physical activity and ambulatory
measures in older claudicants. Angiology.1998;49:327-337.
Guyatt GH, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ.
et al. The six-minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients
with chronic heart failure. Can Med Assoc J.1985;132:919-923.
Richardson MT, Leon AS, Jacobs DR.
et al. Ability of the Caltrac accelerometer to assess daily physical activity
levels. J Cardiopulm Rehabil.1995;15:107-113.
Miller DJ, Freedson PS, Kline GM. Comparison of activity levels using the Caltrac accelerometer and five
questionnaires. Med Sci Sports Exerc.1994;26:376-382.
Swan PD, Byrnes WC, Haymes EM. Energy expenditure estimates of the Caltrac accelerometer for running,
race walking, and stepping. Br J Sports Med.1997;31:235-239.
McDermott MM, Liu K, O'Brien E.
et al. Measuring physical activity in peripheral arterial disease: a comparison
of two physical activity questionnaires with an accelerometer. Angiology.2000;51:91-100.
McDermott MM, Ohlmiller SM, Liu K.
et al. Gait alterations associated with walking impairment in peripheral arterial
disease among men and women with and without intermittent claudication. J Am Geriatr Soc.2001;49:747-754.
Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L.
et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function:
association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and
nursing home admission. J Gerontol.1994;49:M85-M94.
Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB. Lower extremity function in persons over 70 years as a predictor of
subsequent disability. N Engl J Med.1995;332:556-561.
Lyness JM, Noel TK, Cox C, King DA, Conwell Y, Caine ED. Screening for depression in elderly primary care patients. Arch Intern Med.1997;157:449-454.
Birke JA, Sims DS. Plantar sensory threshold in the ulcerative foot. Lepr Rev.1986;57:261-267.
Olmos PR, Cataland S, O'Dorision TM, Casey CA, Smead WL, Simon SR. The Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament as a potential predictor of foot
ulceration in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Am J Med Sci.1995;309:76-82.
Regensteiner JG, Steiner JF, Panzer RJ, Hiatt WR. Evaluation of walking impairment by questionnaire in patients with
peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Med Biol.1990;2:142-152.
McKenna M, Wolfson S, Kuller L. The ratio of ankle and arm arterial pressure as an independent predictor
of mortality. Atherosclerosis.1991;87:119-128.
Feinglass J, McCarthy WJ, Slavensky R, Manheim LJ, Martin GJ. Functional status and walking ability after lower extremity bypass
grafting or angioplasty for intermittent claudication: results from a prospective
outcomes study. J Vasc Surg.2000;31:93-103.