West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in North America in the summer
of 1999 in New York City causing 62 cases of human neurologic disease, 7 deaths,
and leaving thousands of crows, other birds, and horses dead in its wake.1- 3 At this time, there
is no specific therapy available for WNV, which reappeared in 2000 and is
expected to cause disease this year as well. Vaccines for WNV have been developed
but still must undergo lengthy safety and efficacy testing. In this article,
we will consider the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and
treatment of WNV infections and review currently available strategies for
surveillance, prevention, and control of WNV.
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