Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of
the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.1985;27:335-371.
Ryan TJ, Anderson JL, Antman EM.
et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial
infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart
Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of
Acute Myocardial Infarction). J Am Coll Cardiol.1996;28:1328-1428.
Agusti A, Arnau JM, Laporte JR. Clinical trials versus clinical practice in the secondary prevention
of myocardial infarction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.1994;46:95-99.
Brand DA, Newcomer LN, Freiburger A, Tian H. Cardiologists' practices compared with practice guidelines: use of
beta-blockade after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol.1995;26:1432-1436.
Ellerbeck EF, Jencks SF, Radford MJ.
et al. Quality of care for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction:
a 4-state pilot study from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. JAMA.1995;273:1509-1514.
Gurwitz JH, Goldberg RJ, Chen Z, Gore JM, Alpert JS. Beta-blocker therapy in acute myocardial infarction: evidence for underutilization
in the elderly. Am J Med.1992;93:605-610.
Karlson BW, Herlitz J, Hjalmarson A. Impact of clinical trials on the use of beta blockers after acute myocardial
infarction and its relation to other risk indicators for death and 1-year
mortality rate. Clin Cardiol.1994;17:311-316.
Sial SH, Malone M, Freeman JL, Battiola R, Nachodsky J, Goodwin JS. Beta blocker use in the treatment of community hospital patients discharged
after myocardial infarction. J Gen Intern Med.1994;9:599-605.
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Thibault G, Goldman L. Adverse outcomes of underuse of β-blockers in elderly survivors
of acute myocardial infarction. JAMA.1997;277:115-121.
Whitford DL, Southern AJ. Audit of secondary prophylaxis after myocardial infarction. BMJ.1994;309:1268-1269.
Krumholz HM, Radford MJ, Wang Y, Chen J, Heiat A, Marciniak TA. National use and effectiveness of β-blockers for the treatment
of elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction: National Cooperative
Cardiovascular Project. JAMA.1998;280:623-629.
French WJ. Trends in acute myocardial infarction management: use of the National
Registry of Myocardial Infarction in quality improvement. Am J Cardiol.2000;85:5B-9B, 10B-12B.
Marciniak TA, Ellerbeck EF, Radford MJ.
et al. Improving the quality of care for Medicare patients with acute myocardial
infarction: results from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. JAMA.1998;279:1351-1357.
Crockett SE, Green LA, Davis D, Merriam AE, Golden WE, Ryan TJ. β-Blocker Prophylaxis After Acute Myocardial
Infarction. Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 1998.
Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Haynes RB. Evidence for the effectiveness of CME: a review of 50 randomized controlled
Audet AM, Greenfield S, Field M. Medical practice guidelines: current activities and future directions. Ann Intern Med.1990;113:709-714.
Greco PJ, Eisenberg JM. Changing physicians' practices. N Engl J Med.1993;329:1271-1273.
Kosecoff J, Kanouse DE, Rogers WH, McCloskey L, Winslow CM, Brook RH. Effects of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development
Program on physician practice. JAMA.1987;258:2708-2713.
Lomas J, Anderson GM, Domnick-Pierre K, Vayda E, Enkin MW, Hannah WJ. Do practice guidelines guide practice? the effect of a consensus statement
on the practice of physicians. N Engl J Med.1989;321:1306-1311.
Berwick DM, Godfrey AB, Roessner J. Curing Health Care: New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 1990.
Shortell SM, Bennett CL, Byck GR. Assessing the impact of continuous quality improvement on clinical
practice: what it will take to accelerate progress. Milbank Q.1998;76:593-624.
Shortell SM, Jones RH, Rademaker AW.
et al. Assessing the impact of total quality management and organizational
culture on multiple outcomes of care for coronary artery bypass graft surgery
patients. Med Care.2000;38:207-217.
Blumenthal D, Kilo C. A report card on continuous quality improvement. Milbank Q.1998;76:625-648.
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Gurwitz JH.
et al. Effect of local medical opinion leaders on quality of care for acute
myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA.1998;279:1358-1363.
Weiner BJ, Shortell SM, Alexander J. Promoting clinical improvement in hospital quality improvement efforts:
the effects of top management, board, and physician leadership. Health Serv Res.1997;32:491-510.
Crabtree BF, Miller WL. Doing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications; 1999.
Glaser BG, Strauss AL. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for
Qualitative Research. Chicago, Ill: Aldine; 1967.
Miles MB, Huberman AM. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications; 1994.
McCracken G. The Long Interview. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications; 1988.
Constas MA. Qualitative analysis as a public event: the documentation of category
development procedures. Am Educ Res J.1992;29:253-266.
Weiner BJ, Alexander JA, Shortell SM. Leadership for quality improvement in health care: empirical evidence
on hospital boards, managers, and physicians. Med Care Res Rev.1996;53:397-416.
Blumenthal DR. Applying industrial quality management science to physicians' clinical
decisions. In: Blumenthal DR, Scheck AC, eds. Improving Clinical
Practice. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 1995.
Carman JM, Shortell SM, Foster RW.
et al. Keys for successful implementation of total quality management in hospitals. Health Care Manage Rev.1996;21:48-60.
Bogardus ST, Bradley EH, Tinetti M. A taxonomy for goal setting in the care of persons with dementia. J Gen Intern Med.1998;13:675-680.
Locke EA, Latham GP. A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1990.