Hammer SM, Squires KE, Hughes MD.
et al. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons
with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per
cubic millimeter or less. N Engl J Med.1997;337:725-733.
Palella Jr FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC.
et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human
immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med.1998;338:853-860.
Egger M, Hirschel B, Francioli P.
et al. Impact of new antiretroviral combination therapies in HIV-infected
patients in Switzerland. BMJ.1997;315:1194-1199.
Moore RD, Chaisson RE. Natural history of HIV infection in the era of combination antiretroviral
Sullivan PS, Hanson DL, Chu SY.
et al. Epidemiology of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected
Mocroft A, Kirk O, Barton SE.
et al. Anaemia is an independent predictive marker for clinical prognosis
in HIV-infected patients from across Europe. AIDS.1999;13:943-950.
Moore RD, Keruly JC, Chaisson RE. Anemia and survival in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol.1998;19:29-33.
Coyle TE. Hematologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection
and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Med Clin North Am.1997;81:449-470.
Kreuzer KA, Rockstroh JK. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of anemia in HIV infection. Ann Hematol.1997;75:179-187.
Patton LL. Hematologic abnormalities among HIV-infected patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod.1999;88:561-567.
Moore RD. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, anemia, and survival. Clin Infect Dis.1999;29:44-49.
Henry DH, Beall GN, Benson CA.
et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of anemia associated
with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and zidovudine therapy. Ann Intern Med.1992;117:739-748.
Phair JP, Abels RI, McNeill MV, Sullivan DJ. Recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. Arch Intern Med.1993;153:2669-2675.
Popovsky MA, Benson K, Glassman AB.
et al. Transfusion practices in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Transfusion.1995;35:612-616.
Sloand E, Kumar P, Klein HG.
et al. Transfusion of blood components to persons infected with human immunodeficiency
virus type 1. Transfusion.1994;34:48-53.
Vamvakas E, Kaplan HS. Early transfusion and length of survival in acquired immune deficiency
Blumberg N, Peck K, Ross K, Avila E. Immune response to chronic RBC transfusion. Vox Sang.1983;44:212-217.
Brantley SG, Ramsey G. Red cell alloimmunization in multitransfused HLA-typed patients. Transfusion.1988;28:463-466.
Vamvakas EC. Transfusion-associated cancer recurrence and postoperative infection. Transfusion.1996;36:175-186.
Blajchman MA, Bardossy L, Carmen R.
et al. Allogeneic blood transfusion-induced enhancement of tumor growth. Blood.1993;81:1880-1882.
George CD, Morello PJ. Immunologic effects of blood transfusion upon renal transplantation,
tumor operations, and bacterial infections. Am J Surg.1986;152:329-337.
Bordin JO, Heddle NM, Blajchman MA. Biologic effects of leukocytes present in transfused cellular blood
Opelz G, Sengar DP, Mickey MR, Terasaki PI. Effect of blood transfusions on subsequent kidney transplants. Transplant Proc.1973;5:253-259.
Opelz G, Vanrenterghem Y, Kirste G.
et al. Prospective evaluation of pretransplant blood transfusions in cadaver
kidney recipients. Transplantation.1997;63:964-967.
Williams JG, Hughes LE. Effect of perioperative blood transfusion on recurrence of Crohn's
Peters WR, Fry RD, Fleshman JW, Kodner IJ. Multiple blood transfusions reduce the recurrence rate of Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum.1989;32:749-753.
Gatenby PA, Cameron K, Simes RJ.
et al. Treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion by immunization with paternal
lymphocytes. Am J Reprod Immunol.1993;29:88-94.
Jensen LS, Kissmeyer-Nielsen P, Wolff B, Qvist N. Randomised comparison of leukocyte-depleted versus buffy-coat-poor
blood transfusion and complications after colorectal surgery. Lancet.1996;348:841-845.
Houbiers JG, van de Velde CJ, van de Watering LM.
et al. Transfusion of red cells is associated with increased incidence of
bacterial infection after colorectal surgery. Transfusion.1997;37:126-134.
Koval KJ, Rosenberg AD, Zuckerman JD.
et al. Does blood transfusion increase the risk of infection after hip fracture? J Orthop Trauma.1997;11:260-265.
Vamvakas EC. Multicenter randomized controlled trials in transfusion medicine. Transfus Med Rev.2000;14:137-150.
Bordin JO, Chiba AK, Carvalho KI.
et al. The effect of unmodified or prestorage white cell-reduced allogeneic
red cell transfusions on the immune responsiveness in orthopedic surgery patients. Transfusion.1999;39:718-723.
Mincheff MS, Meryman HT, Kapoor V.
et al. Blood transfusion and immunomodulation. Vox Sang.1993;65:18-24.
Dzik WH. Mononuclear cell microchimerism and the immunomodulatory effect of
Klein HG. Immunomodulation caused by blood transfusion. In: Peltz LD, Swisher SN, Kleinman S, et al, eds. Clinical Practice of Transfusion Medicine, Edition 3. New York, NY:
Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1996:59-69.
Hillyer CD, Lankford KV, Roback JD.
et al. Transfusion of the HIV-seropositive patients. Transfus Med Rev.1999;13:1-17.
Vamvakas EC. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of white
cell reduction in preventing HLA-alloimmunization and refractoriness to random-donor
platelet transfusions. Transfus Med Rev.1998;12:258-270.
Blajchman MA. Transfusion-associated immunomodulation and universal white cell reduction. Transfusion.1999;39:665-670.
Dzik S, Aubuchon J, Jeffries L.
et al. Leukocyte reduction of blood components. Transfus Med Rev.2000;14:34-52.
American Association of Blood Banks. BPAC recommends universal leukoreduction. AABB News Briefs.1998;20:16.
AuBuchon JP, Birkmeyer JD, Busch MP. Safety of the blood supply in the United States. Ann Intern Med.1997;127:904-909.
Busch MP, Lee T-H, Heitman J. Allogeneic leukocytes but not therapeutic blood elements induce reactivation
and dissemination of latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Blood.1992;80:2128-2135.
Soderberg-Naucler C, Fish KN, Nelson JA. Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus by allogeneic stimulation
of blood cells from healthy donors. Cell.1997;91:119-126.
Olding LB, Jensen FC, Oldstone MB. Pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus infection, I. J Exp Med.1975;141:561-572.
Cheung K-S, Lang DJ. Transmission and activation of cytomegalovirus with blood transfusion. J Infect Dis.1977;135:841-845.
Busch MP, Collier A, Gernsheimer JD.
et al. The Viral Activation Transfusion Study (VATS). Transfusion.1996;36:854-859.
Mudido PM, Georges D, Dorazio D.
et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activation after blood transfusion. Transfusion.1996;36:860-865.
Groopman JE. Impact of transfusion on viral load in human immunodeficiency virus
infection. Semin Hematol.1997;34(suppl 2):27-33.
Karnofsky DA. Problems and pitfalls in the evaluation of anticancer drugs. Cancer.1965;18:1517-1528.
Zelen M. The randomization and stratification of patients to clinical trials. J Chronic Dis.1974;27:365-375.
Blatt SP, Lucey CR, Butzin CA.
et al. Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ count and CD4+
percentage in HIV-infected persons. JAMA.1993;269:622-626.
Fiebig EW, Johnson DK, Hirschkorn DF.
et al. Lymphocyte subset analysis on frozen whole blood. Cytometry.1997;29:340-350.
Lee TH, Sakahara NS, Fiebig EW.
et al. Quantitation of white cell subpopulations by polymerase chain reaction
using frozen whole-blood samples. Transfusion.1998;38:262-270.
Report of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection Ann Intern Med.1998;128:1057-1078.
Mulder J, McKinney N, Christopherson C.
et al. Rapid and simple PCR assay for quantitation of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 RNA in plasma. J Clin Microbiol.1994;32:292-300.
Long CM, Drew L, Miner R.
et al. Detection of cytomegalovirus in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid specimens
from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by the AMPLICOR CMV test. J Clin Microbiol.1998;36:2434-2438.
Pellegrin I, Garrigue I, Binquet C.
et al. Evaluation of new quantitative assays for diagnosis and monitoring
of cytomegalovirus disease in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. J Clin Microbiol.1999;37:3124-3132.
Lederman MM, Kalish LA, Asmuth D.
et al. ‘Modeling' relationships among HIV-1 replication, immune activation
and CD4+ T-cell losses using adjusted correlative analyses. AIDS.2000;14:951-958.
Lee TH, Stromberg RR, Heitman J.
et al. Quantitation of residual white cells in filtered blood components by
polymerase chain reaction amplification of HLA DQ-A DNA. Transfusion.1994;34:986-994.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance
case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1992;41:1-19.
Wang Y, Tao L, Mitchell E.
et al. Allo-immunization elicits CD8+ T cell-derived chemokines, HIV suppressor
factors and resistance to HIV infection in women. Nat Med.1999;5:1004-1009.
British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Blood Transfusion Task
Force. Guidelines on the clinical use of leucocyte-depleted blood components. Transfus Med.1998;8:59-71.
Danish Society of Clinical Immunology. Danish recommendations for the transfusion of leukocyte-depleted blood
components. Vox Sang.1996;70:185-186.
Schechter GP, Soehnlen F, McFarland W. Lymphocyte response to blood transfusion in man. N Engl J Med.1972;287:1169-1173.
Fiebig E, Hirschkorn DF, Maino VC.
et al. Assessment of donor T-cell function in cellular blood components by
the CD69 induction assay. Transfusion.2000;40:761-770.
Hyllner M, Arnestad JP, Bengtson JP.
et al. Complement activation during storage of whole blood, red cells, plasma,
and buffy coat. Transfusion.1997;37:264-268.
Kristiansson M, Soop M, Saraste L, Sundqvist KG. Cytokines in stored RBC concentrates. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand.1996;40:496-501.
Weisbach V, Wanke C, Zingsem J.
et al. Cytokine generation in whole blood, leukocyte-depleted and temporarily
warmed RBC concentrates. Vox Sang.1999;76:100-106.
Frabetti F, Musiani D, Marini M.
et al. White cell apoptosis in packed red cells. Transfusion.1998;38:1082-1089.
Chin-Yee I, Keeney M, Krueger L.
et al. Supernatant from stored red cells activates neutrophils. Transfus Med Rev.1998;8:49-56.
Prince HE, Arens L. Effect of storage on lymphocyte surface markers in whole blood units. Transplantation.1986;41:235-238.
Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets Study Group. Leukocyte reduction and ultraviolet B irradiation of platelets to prevent
alloimmunization and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. N Engl J Med.1997;337:1861-1869.
Jensen LS. Benefits of leukocyte-reduced blood transfusion in surgical patients. Curr Opin Hematol.1998;5:376-380.
Kirkley SA, Cowles J, Pellegrini VD.
et al. Blood transfusion and total joint replacement surgery. Transfus Med.1998;8:195-204.
Kovacs JA, Vogel S, Albert JM.
et al. Controlled trial of interleukin-2 infusions in patients infected with
the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med.1996;335:1350-1356.
deGraan-Hentzen YC, Gratama JW, Mudde GC.
et al. Prevention of primary cytomegalovirus infection in patients with hematologic
malignancies by intensive white cell depletion of blood products. Transfusion.1989;29:757-760.
Gilbert GL, Hayes K, Hudson IL, James J.for the Neonatal Cytomegalovirus Infection Study Group. Prevention of transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus infection in infants
by blood filtration to remove leucocytes. Lancet.1989;1:1228-1231.
Bowden RA, Slichter SJ, Sayers M.
et al. A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV)
seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV
infection after marrow transplant. Blood.1995;86:3598-3603.
Hillyer CD, Emmens RK, Zago-Novaretti M, Berkman EM. Methods for the reduction of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus
Larsson S, Soderberg-Naucler C, Wang FZ, Moller E. Cytomegalovirus DNA can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear
cells from all seropositive and most seronegative healthy blood donors over
Spector SA, Hirata KK, Newman TR. Identification of multiple cytomegalovirus strains in homosexual men
with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis.1984;150:953-956.
Eizuru Y, Minamishima Y, Hirose M.
et al. Isolation of multiple cytomegalovirus strains from a patient with adult
T cell leukemia. Intervirology.1990;31:355-358.
Baldanti F, Sarasini A, Furione M.
et al. Coinfection of the immunocompromised but not the immunocompetent host
by multiple human cytomegalovirus strains. Arch Virol.1998;143:1701-1709.