Published Online: November 13, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.15063.
Study concept and design: Naik, Derebail, Auer, Rich, Lanzkron, Key, Kathiresan, Bibbins-Domingo, Kshirsagar, Wilson, Reiner.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Naik, Grams, Franceschini, Auer, Peloso, Young, Lettre, Peralta, Katz, Hyacinth, Quarells, Grove, Bick, Fontanillas, Rich, Smith, Boerwinkle, Rosamond, Ito, Coresh, Correa, Sarto, Jacobs, Bibbins-Domingo, Kshirsagar, Wilson, Reiner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Naik, Derebail, Auer, Hyacinth, Quarells, Grove, Key, Kshirsagar, Reiner.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Naik, Derebail, Grams, Franceschini, Auer, Peloso, Young, Lettre, Peralta, Katz, Hyacinth, Bick, Fontanillas, Rich, Smith, Boerwinkle, Rosamond, Ito, Lanzkron, Coresh, Correa, Sarto, Key, Jacobs, Kathiresan, Bibbins-Domingo, Kshirsagar, Wilson, Reiner.
Statistical analysis: Naik, Derebail, Grams, Franceschini, Auer, Peloso, Lettre, Hyacinth, Bick, Fontanillas, Ito, Coresh, Jacobs, Kathiresan, Bibbins-Domingo, Reiner.
Obtained funding: Derebail, Franceschini, Young, Quarells, Grove, Rich, Rosamond, Key, Jacobs, Kathiresan, Kshirsagar, Wilson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Auer, Hyacinth, Bick, Boerwinkle, Correa, Sarto, Bibbins-Domingo, Wilson.
Study supervision: Lanzkron, Kathiresan, Kshirsagar, Wilson, Reiner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Peralta reports grant funding from LabCorp. Dr Lanzkron reports funding from Emmaus, Glycomimetrics, and Novartis. Dr Kathiresan reports grant funding from AstraZeneca and Merck and serving on the advisory board for Amarin, Catabasis, and Regeneron. Dr Bibbins-Domingo reports receiving personal fees from Roche. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) is carried out as a collaborative study supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; contracts HHSN268201100005C, HHSN268201100006C, HHSN268201100007C, HHSN268201100008C, HHSN268201100009C, HHSN268201100010C, HHSN268201100011C, and HHSN268201100012C and grants R01HL087641, R01HL59367, and R01HL086694); National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI; contract U01HG004402); and the National Institutes of Health (NIH; contract HHSN268200625226C). Funding for “Building on Genome Wide Association Studies for NHLBI-diseases: the US CHARGE Consortium” was provided by grant 5RC2HL102419 from the NIH through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Sequencing was funded by grant U54 HG003273 from the Baylor Genome Center. This ancillary study was supported by grant 5K12 HL087097-0 from the Duke University Medical Center and University of North Carolina Clinical Hematology Research Career Development Program (Dr. Derebail). The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is supported by the NHLBI and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (contracts HHSN268201300046C, HHSN268201300047C, HHSN268201300048C, HHSN268201300049C, HHSN268201300050C). The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is conducted and supported by NHLBI in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (contracts HHSN268201300025C and HSN268201300026C), Northwestern University (contract HHSN268201300027C), University of Minnesota (contract HHSN268201300028C), Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (contract HHSN268201300029C), and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (contract HHSN268200900041C). CARDIA is also partially supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and intra-agency agreement AG0005 between NIA and NHLBI. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was supported by the NHLBI (contracts N01-HC-95159, N01-HC-95160, N01-HC-95161, N01-HC-95162, N01-HC-95163, N01-HC-95164, N01-HC-95165, N01-HC-95166, N01-HC-95167, N01-HC-95168 and N01-HC-95169) and by grants UL1-TR-000040 and UL1-RR-025005 from National Center for Research Resources. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) program is funded by NHLBI, NIH, and the US Department of Health and Human Services (contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C). Funding for the Grand Opportunity Exome Sequencing Project (GO ESP) was provided by NHLBI grants RC2 HL-103010 (HeartGO), RC2 HL-102923 (LungGO), and RC2 HL-102924 (WHISP). The exome sequencing was performed through NHLBI grants RC2 HL-102925 (BroadGO) and RC2 HL-102926 (SeattleGO). Exome sequencing was also performed through the Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Next Generation Sequencing (T2D-GENES) consortium, with support from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK; contracts DK085501, DK085524, DK085526, DK085545, and DK085584). Additional exome sequencing was performed through the Minority Health Genomics and Translational Research Bio-repository Database (MH-GRID) with support from grant RC4MD005964 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The MH-GRID investigators (Rakale C. Quarells, Donna K. Arnett, Gary H. Gibbons, Robert L. Davis, Suzanne M. Leal, Deborah A. Nickerson, James Perkins, Charles N. Rotimi, Joel H. Saltz, and Herman A. Taylor, James G. Wilson) collected and provided data for this study. Chip genotyping and exome sequencing in JHS was also supported by grant R01HL107816 from NHLBI (Dr Kathiresan) and NHGRI (contract 5u54HG003067) (Drs Gabriel and Lander). Support for targeted sequencing was provided by grants U54 HG003067 from the NHGRI (Medical Sequencing Program) and HL080494-05 from NHLBI. Funding for cystatin C and APOL1 in ARIC was provided by grants R01 DK089174 for cystatin C (Dr Selvin) and R01 DK076770–01 for APOL1 from the NIH and NIDDK. Funding for this work was also provided by grant 1R01DK102134-01 from the NIH and NIDDK. This material is the result of work supported by resources from the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System (Dr Young), Seattle, Washington. Funding was also provided in part by grant 2K12HL087169-06 (Dr Naik), by grant T32HL007208 (Dr Peloso), by grant 1UO1HL117659 (Dr Key), and by grant R01HL071862 (Dr Reiner) from NHLBI. Some of the data reported here have been supplied by the United States Renal Data System.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the responsibility of the authors and in no way should be seen as an official policy or interpretation of the US government.
Additional Contributions: We thank the investigators, staff, and participants of the ARIC, JHS, CARDIA, MESA, and WHI for their valuable contributions.