Lead is an element that everyone can safely be against. Lead causes
anemia, hypertension, and brain and kidney damage, and in children stunts
growth and causes permanent cognitive impairment and increased aggressive
behavior. For human health, lead clearly causes harm and does no good.
Ironically, virtually all the lead in the environment is there as a
result of human activity. Under premetallurgical conditions, lead in the earth's
crust was locked safely away in deep ore deposits or in marine calcareous
beds. As technology advanced, lead was mined and smelted and was a workable
and useful metal, finding its way into such diverse applications as Roman
water conduits, medieval cathedral roof sheathing, fine crystal, paints with
a superior covering characteristic, solders, antiknock compounds for automotive
fuels, and, of course, ammunition—ammunition by the countless ton over
the last several hundred years. All that lead was transferred through human
activity, from deep ore deposits to the superficial layers of the earth's
crust in which food is grown.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 8
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.