We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Grand Rounds |

Strategies for Long-term Success in the Treatment of HIV Infection

Joel E. Gallant, MD, MPH
JAMA. 2000;283(10):1329-1334. doi:10.1001/jama.283.10.1329.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Highly active antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which can now be viewed as a chronic and manageable disease. However, HIV infection differs from other chronic diseases in that early treatment decisions can irrevocably alter the patient's response to future therapy. Despite the large number of approved antiretroviral agents, the number of sequential treatment regimens that will be effective for an individual patient is sharply limited by cross-resistance within the 3 drug classes.

Because of the complexity of antiretroviral therapy, clinicians prescribing it require considerable expertise. Treatment should be deferred until the patient has been educated about the importance of strict adherence and has demonstrated willingness and motivation to begin therapy. Drug regimens should be chosen that the patient can tolerate and adhere to, and the consequences of resistance should be considered before therapy is begun. When treatment fails, the timing and choice of subsequent therapy can be critical in determining the magnitude and durability of response. Resistance testing can help guide the clinician in the choice of therapy. In patients who have been treated with numerous antiretroviral agents, it may be impossible to achieve significant viral suppression. Therapy may still be beneficial for such patients, but it should be tolerable and should not increase resistance to drugs that may become available in the near future.

Drug resistance and treatment failure are not random events, but are the result of factors over which clinicians and their patients have some control. The treatment of drug-resistant patients is challenging; the best way to deal with resistance is to prevent it.

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

77 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles