Rumball CJ, MacDonald D. The PTL, Combitube, laryngeal mask, and oral airway: a randomized prehospital
comparative study of ventilatory device effectiveness and cost-effectiveness
in 470 cases of cardiorespiratory arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care.1997;1:1-10.
Pointer JE. Clinical characteristics of paramedics' performance of pediatric endotracheal
intubation. Am J Emerg Med.1989;7:364-366.
Doran JV, Tortella BJ, Drivet WJ, Lavery RF. Factors influencing successful intubation in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Disaster Med.1995;10:259-264.
Aijian P, Tsai A, Knopp R, Kallsen GW. Endotracheal intubation of pediatric patients by paramedics. Ann Emerg Med.1989;18:489-494.
Losek JD, Hennes H, Glaeser P, Hendley G, Nelson DB. Prehospital care of the pulseless, nonbreathing pediatric patient. Am J Emerg Med.1987;5:370-374.
Losek JD, Bonadio WA, Walsh-Kelly C, Hennes H, Smith DS, Glaeser PW. Prehospital pediatric endotracheal intubation performance review. Pediatr Emerg Care.1989;5:1-4.
Nakayama DK, Gardner MJ, Rowe MI. Emergency endotracheal intubation in pediatric trauma. Ann Surg.1990;211:218-223.
Kumar VR, Bachman DT, Kiskaddon RT. Children and adults in cardiopulmonary arrest: are advanced life support
guidelines followed in the prehospital setting? Ann Emerg Med.1997;29:743-747.
Mogayzel C, Quan L, Graves JR, Tiedeman D, Fahrenbruch C, Herndon P. Out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children and adolescents:
causes and outcomes. Ann Emerg Med.1995;25:484-491.
Brownstein D, Shugerman R, Cummings P, Rivara F, Copass M. Prehospital endotracheal intubation of children by paramedics. Ann Emerg Med.1996;28:34-39.
Quan L, Wentz KR, Gore EJ, Copass MK. Outcome and predictors of outcome in pediatric submersion victims receiving
prehospital care in King County, Washington. Pediatrics.1990;86:586-593.
Sirbaugh PE, Pepe PE, Shook JE.
et al. A prospective, population-based study of the demographics, epidemiology,
management, and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest Ann Emerg Med.1999;33:174-184. [published correction appears in Ann Emerg Med.1999;33:358].
Quan L, Kinder D. Pediatric submersions: prehospital predictors of outcome. Pediatrics.1992;90:909-913.
Stratton SJ, Underwood LA, Whalen SM, Gunter CS. Prehospital pediatric endotracheal intubation: a survey of the United
States. Prehosp Disaster Med.1993;8:323-326.
Gausche M, Lewis RJ, Gunter CS, Henderson DP, Haynes BE, Stratton SJ. Design and implementation of a controlled trial of pediatric endotracheal
intubation in the out-of-hospital setting. Ann Emerg Med.In press.
Not Available. Emergency Medical Services Plan for Los Angeles County, California:
1991-1992 Annual Plan. Los Angeles, Calif: Los Angeles County Emergency Medical Services
Not Available. Emergency Medical Services Plan for Orange County, California: 1991-1992. Santa Ana, Calif: Orange County Emergency Medical Services Agency;
Seidel JSS, Gausche M. Standards for emergency departments. In: Dieckman RA, ed. Planning and Managing Systems
for Pediatric Emergency Care. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins;
Los Angeles Pediatric Society. Information Handbook for Emergency Departments Approved
for Pediatrics and Pediatric Critical Care Centers. Los Angeles, Calif: Los Angeles Pediatric Society; 1984.
Shea S, Gallagher C, Ott JD.
et al. Pediatric Endotracheal Intubation Report to the Medical
Advisory Council, Los Angeles County Emergency Medical Services Agency: October
1990-September 1992. Long Beach, Calif: Long Beach Fire Department; 1992.
Gausche M, Goodrich SM, Poore PD. Instructor Manual for Advanced Life Support Providers:
Pediatric Airway Management Project. Torrance, Calif: Maternal and Child Health Bureau in collaboration
with the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration and the Agency
for Health Care Policy and Research, and the National EMSC Resource Alliance;
Gausche M, Stratton SJ, Henderson FP.
et al. Bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM) for children in the prehospital setting. Acad Emerg Med.1996;3:404-405.
Fiser DH. Assessing the outcome of pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr.1992;121:68-74.
Lewis RJ. An introduction to the use of interim data analyses in clinical trials. Ann Emerg Med.1993;22:1463-1469.
O'Brien PC, Fleming TR. A multiple testing procedure for clinical trials. Biometrics.1979;35:549-556.
Geller NL, Pocock SJ. Interim analyses in randomized clinical trials: ramifications and guidelines
for practitioners. Biometrics.1987;43:213-223.
Lewis RJ, Berry DA. Group sequential clinical trials: a classical evaluation of Bayesian
decision-theoretic designs. J Am Stat Assoc.1994;89:1528-1534.
Seidel JS, Henderson DP, Ward P, Wayland BW, Ness B. Pediatric prehospital care in urban and rural areas. Pediatrics.1991;88:681-690.
Tsai A, Kallsen G. Epidemiology of pediatric prehospital care. Ann Emerg Med.1987;16:284-292.
United States Department of Transportation. Emergency Medical Technician: Basic, National Standard
Curriculum. Washington, DC: US Dept of Transportation, National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration; 1994. Publication DOT HS 808,149.
Stratton SJ, Kane G, Gunter CS.
et al. Prospective study of manikin-only versus manikin and human subject
endotracheal intubation training of paramedics. Ann Emerg Med.1991;20:1314-1318.