Author Contributions: Dr Fowler had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Fowler, Mittmann, Geerts, Gould, Guyatt, Krahn, Cook.
Acquistion, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Fowler, Mittmann, Heels-Ansdell, Pinto.
Obtained funding: Fowler, Cook.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Fowler, Cook.
Study supervision: Fowler, Mittmann, Geerts, Gould, Guyatt, Krahn, Cook.
Published Online: November 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.15101.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Fowler reported receiving support from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care and that he is a Clinician Scientist of the Heart and Stroke Foundation (Ontario, Canada). Dr Mittmann reported receiving unrestricted support for economic evaluation of another agent from Pfizer Canada and serving on an advisory board for Pfizer Canada. Dr Geerts reported receiving personal fees from Bayer Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Leo Pharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi. Ms Heels-Ansdell reported receiving travel expenses from Pfizer Canada. Dr Finfer reported serving as a board member for Baxter; serving as a consultant to Eisai and Eli Lilly; and receiving a grant/grant pending from Fresnius Kabi. Dr Hall reported receiving grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canadian Intensive Care Foundation, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation and serving as a commercial sponsor for an agent manufactured by Portola. Dr Marshall reported receiving research coodinator support from McMaster University/Canadian Institutes of Health Research and receiving personal fees from AKPA, Eli Lilly, and Eisai. Dr Cook reported that she is a Canada Research Chair of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: E-PROTECT was funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation (Ontario, Canada), the University of Toronto, and the Canadian Intensive Care Foundation. PROTECT was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Heart and Stroke Foundation (Canada), and the Australian and New Zealand College of Anesthetists Research Foundation.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The funders/sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The E-PROTECT Investigators:Canada: Brian Chan; Deborah Cook; Peter Dodek; Chip Doig; Niall Ferguson; Robert Fowler; William Geerts; Gordon Guyatt; Richard Hall; Diane Heels-Ansdell; Mike Jacka; Murray Krahn; John Marshall; Lauralyn McIntyre; Sangeeta Mehta; Nicole Mittmann; John Muscedere; Orges Ormanidhi; Ruxandra Pinto; Yoanna Skrobik; Sachin Sud; Australia: Jack Cade; Jamie Cooper; Simon Finfer; Neil Orford; Ian Seppelt; United States: Michael K. Gould; James Klinger; Nicholas Vlahakis; Saudi Arabia: Yaseen Arabi; Ismael Qushmaq; Brazil: Marcelo G. Rocha.
Additional Study Members: Canada: Nicole Marinoff, RN, John Iazzetta, PharmD, Brian Chan, BSc, Bill Bartle, PharmD, Dawn Dawkins, Jeannie Callum, MD, Meredith Malloy, Margaret Herridge, MD, MS, Cathy Tansey, PhD, Angela Cheung, MD, PhD, Lori Anne Rayburn, RN, Cheryl Ethier, BA, John Granton, MD, Orla Smith, PhD, Jan Friedrich, MD, DPhil, Diane Heels-Ansdell, MSc, Nicole Zytaruk, RN, Ellen McDonald, RN, Mark Crowther, MD, Roy Ilan, MD, MSc, Colleen Knapp, Mae Squires, PhD, Lisa Julien, RN, BScN, CCRP, Caroline Roy, RN, Irene Watpool, RN, Claude Gaudert, Johanne Harvey, RN, Martine LeBlanc, RN, Nicole O’Callaghan, BA, Aslam Anis, PhD, Denise Foster, RN, Betty-Jean Ashley, RN, Sheilagh Mans, RN, Linda Knox, RN, Deidre Hennessey, PhD, Stafford Dean, PhD, Andrea Matte, RRT, Leeca Sonnema, RN, Elizabeth Seib, RN, Mary Lou McKenzie, RN, Sharlene Hammond, RN, Elizabeth Mann, RN: Queen Elizabeth II Hospital (Halifax); Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (Montréal); Ottawa Hospital (Ottawa); Kingston General Hospital (Kingston); Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, St Michael's Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Toronto); St Joseph’s Hospital (Hamilton); Foothills Hospital (Calgary); University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton); St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver); Australia Julie Potter, RN, ICU Cert, MHSc(Ed), MN(Hons), Lynette Murray, Shirley Vallance, RN, Anne O’Connor, RN, Simon Bird, RN, GDipN, Liz Yarad. RN, BN, MN, Deborah Barge, Patzy Low, Leone Weisbrodt, Chris Wright, Tania Elderkin, Anne Kinmonth, Melissa Fraser: Royal North Shore Hospital (Sydney); Barwon Health (Geelong); Nepean Hospital (Penrith); Royal Melbourne Hospital, The Alfred Centre (Melbourne); United States: Todd Wagner, PhD, Laurie Meade, RN, Barbara Smithson, RN, Laura Roberts: Stanford University (Palo Alto); Rhode Island Hospital (Providence); Mayo Clinic (Rochester);Saudi Arabia: Jean Brennick, RN, Mohammad Alsultan, MD; King Saud Bin Abdul-aziz University for Health Sciences (Ryiadh); King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (Jeddah);Brazil: Aline Ghiot, RN, Andréa Kramer, BSc (Pharm): Hospitalar Santa Casa (Porto Alegre).