Heckbert SR, Vedder NB, Hoffman W.
et al. Outcome after hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients. J Trauma.1998;45:545-549.
Davis JW, Shackford SR, Mackersie RC, Hoyt DB. Base deficit as a guide to volume resuscitation. J Trauma.1988;28:1464-1467.
Davis JW, Parks SN, Kaups KL, Gladen HE, O'Donnel-Nicol S. Admission base deficit predicts transfusion requirements and risk complications. J Trauma1996;41:769-774.
Manikis P, Jankowski S, Zhang H.
et al. Correlation of serial blood lactate levels to organ failure and mortality
after trauma. Am J Emerg Med.1995;13:619-622.
Roumen RM, Redl H, Schlag G, Sandtner W, Koller W, Goris RJ. Scoring systems and blood lactate concentrations in relation to the
development of adult respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure
in severely traumatized patients. J Trauma1993;35:349-355.
Rutherford EJ, Morris JA, Reed GW, Hall KS. Base deficit stratifies mortality and determines therapy. J Trauma1992;33:417-423.
Bickell WH, Bruttig SP, Millnamow GA, O'Benar J, Wade CE. The detrimental effects of intravenous crystalloid after aortotomy
in swine. Surgery.1991;110:529-536.
Stern SA, Dronen SC, Birrer P, Wang X. Effect of blood pressure on hemorrhage volume and survival in a near-fatal
hemorrhage model incorporating a vascular injury. Ann Emerg Med.1993;22:155-163.
Vignali A, Braga M, Gianotti L.
et al. A single unit of transfused allogeneic blood increases postoperative
infections. Vox Sang.1996;71:170-175.
Fitzgerald RD, Martin CM, Dietz GE.
et al. Transfusing red blood cells stored in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1
for 28 days fails to improve tissue oxygenation in rats. Crit Care Med.1997;25:726-732.
Bickell WH, Wall MJJ, Pepe PE.
et al. Immediate vs delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with
penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med.1994;331:1105-1109.
Capone AC, Safar P, Stezoski W, Tisherman S, Peitzman AB. Improved outcome with fluid restriction in treatment of uncontrolled
hemorrhagic shock. J Am Coll Surg.1995;180:49-56.
Owens TM, Watson WC, Prough DS.
et al. Limiting initial resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhage reduces internal
bleeding and subsequent volume requirements. J Trauma.1995;39:200-207.
Bourguignon PR, Shackford SR, Shiffer C.
et al. Delayed fluid resuscitation of head injury and uncontrolled hemorrhagic
shock. Arch Surg.1998;133:390-398.
Kim SH, Stezoski SW, Safar P.
et al. Hypothermia and minimal fluid resuscitation increase survival after
uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats. J Trauma.1997;42:213-222.
Leppaniemi A, Soltero R, Burris D.
et al. Fluid resuscitation in a model of uncontrolled hemorrhage: too much
too early, or too little too late? J Surg Res.1996;63:413-418.
Leppaniemi A, Soltero R, Burris D.
et al. Early resuscitation with low-volume PolyDCLHb is effective in the treatment
of shock induced by penetrating vascular injury. J Trauma.1996;40:242-248.
Jesch FH, Peters W, Hobbhahn J.
et al. Oxygen-transporting fluids and oxygen delivery with hemodilution. Crit Care Med.1982;10:270-274.
Patel MJ, Webb EJ, Shelbourn TE.
et al. Absence of immunogenicity of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin in humans. Blood.1998;91:710-716.
Reppucci AJ, Mattia-Goldberg C.
et al. The effects of diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin on the assessment of
immunohematology profiles. Transfusion.1997;37:1143-1148.
Matts JP, Lachin JM. Properties of permuted-block randomization in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials.1988;9:327-344.
Nelson D, Azari M, Brown R.
et al. Preparation and characterization of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin
solutions for preclinical studies. Biomater ArtifCells Immobilization Biotechnol.1992;20:423-427.
Marshall JC, Cook DJ, Christou NV.
et al. Multiple organ dysfunction score. Crit Care Med.1995;23:1638-1652.
Miller AB, Hoogstraten B, Staquet M, Winkler A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer.1981;47:207-214.
Przybelski RJ, Daily EK, Stern KN, Mattia-Goldberg C. A graded scale for assessment of safety of blood substitutes. Transfusion.1997;37:749-751.
Cox D. Regression models and life-tables. J R Stat Soc.1992;(Series B):187-220.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1989.
Champion HR, Sacco WJ, Copes WS.
et al. A revision of the Trauma Score. J Trauma.1989;29:623-629.
Baker SP, O'Neill B. The injury severity score. J Trauma.1976;16:882-885.
Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon WJ, Long WB. The injury severity score. J Trauma.1974;14:187-196.
Civil ID, Schwab CW. The Abbreviated Injury Scale, 1985 revision. J Trauma.1988;28:87-90.
Moore EE, Dunn EL, Moore JB.
et al. Penetrating abdominal trauma index. J Trauma.1981;21:439-445.
Boyd CR, Tolson MA, Copes WS. Evaluating trauma care: the TRISS method. J Trauma.1987;27:370-378.
Biros MH, Runge JW, Lewis RJ, Doherty C. Emergency medicine and the development of the Food and Drug Administration's
final rule on informed consent and waiver of informed consent in emergency
research circumstances. Acad Emerg Med.1998;5:359-368.
Biros MH, Lewis RJ, Olson CM.
et al. Informed consent in emergency research. JAMA.1995;273:1283-1287.
Protection of human subjects: informed consent and waiver of informed
consent requirements in certain emergency research; final rules (21 CFR § 50.24 and 45 CFR § 46.408). Federal Register:51528-51533
Mattox KL, Maningas PA, Moore EE.
et al. Prehospital hypertonic saline/dextran infusion for post-traumatic hypotension:
the USA Multicenter Trial. Ann Surg.1991;213:482-491.
Vassar MJ, Perry CA, Holcroft JW. Prehospital resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients with 7.5%
NaCl vs 7.5% NaCl with added dextran. J Trauma.1993;34:622-632.
Gervin AS, Fischer RP. Resuscitation of trauma patients with type-specific uncrossmatched
blood. J Trauma.1984;24:327-331.
Gould SA, Moore EE, Hoyt DB.
et al. The first randomized trial of human polymerized hemoglobin as a blood
substitute in acute trauma and emergent surgery. J Am Coll Surg.1998;187:113-120.
Gulati A, Sen AP. Dose-dependent effect of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin on regional
blood circulation of severely hemorrhaged rats. Shock.1998;9:65-73.
Schultz SC, Hamilton INJ, Malcolm DS. Use of base deficit to compare resuscitation with lactated Ringer's
solution, Haemaccel, whole blood, and diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin following
hemorrhage in rats. J Trauma.1993;35:619-625.
Cohn SM, Farrell TJ. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin resuscitation of hemorrhage. J Trauma.1995;39:210-216.
DeAngeles DA, Scott AM, McGrath AM.
et al. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin,
blood, or hetastarch. J Trauma.1997;42:406-412.
Frankel HL, Nguyen HB, Shea-Donohue T.
et al. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin is efficacious in gut resuscitation
as measured by a GI tract optode. J Trauma.1996;40:231-240.
Schultz SC, Powell CC, Burris DG.
et al. The efficacy of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin solution resuscitation
in a model of uncontrolled hemorrhage. J Trauma.1994;37:408-412.
Schiller HJ, Buchman TG, Bulkley GB. Multiple system organ failure. Curr Surg Ther.1993;1067-1072.
Beal AL, Cerra FB. Multiple organ failure syndrome in the 1990s. JAMA.1994;271:226-233.
Przybelski RJ, Daily EK, Kisicki JC.
et al. Phase I study of the safety and pharmacologic effects of diaspirin
cross-linked hemoglobin solution. Crit Care Med.1996;24:1993-2000.
Reah G, Bodenham AR, Mallick A.
et al. Initial evaluation of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) as
a vasopressor in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med.1997;25:1480-1488.
Przybelski R, Kisicki J, Daily E.
et al. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb): phase I clinical safety
assessment in normal healthy volunteers. Crit Care Med.1991:22:A231.
Przybelski R, Bodenham A, Lipman J. Potential of hemoglobin therapeutics to improve hemodynamics and oxygenation
in critically ill patients. Am J Crit Care Med.1998;157:A295.
Sloan EP, Koenigsberg M, Bickell WH. The use of diaspirin crossed-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) solution in
the treatment of hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock. Acad Emerg Med.1995;2:364-365.
Hess JR, MacDonald VW, Brinkley WW. Systemic and pulmonary hypertension after resuscitation with cell-free
hemoglobin. J Appl Physiol.1993;74:1769-1778.
Sprung J, Mackenzie CF, Barnas GM.
et al. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular effects of resuscitation from severe
hemorrhagic shock using hemoglobin solutions. Crit Care Med.1995;23:1540-1553.
Standl T, Wilhelm S, Horn EP.
et al. Preoperative hemodilution with bovine hemoglobin. Anaesthesist.1997;46:763-770.
Gulati A, Sen AP, Sharma AC, Singh G. Role of ET and NO in resuscitative effect of diaspirin cross-linked
hemoglobin after hemorrhage in rat. Am J Physiol.1997;273:H827-H836.
Hart JL, Ledvina MA, Muldoon SM. Actions of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin on isolated rat and dog
vessels. J Lab Clin Med.1997;129:356-363.
Lamy M. Clinical Benefits of DCLHb Following Cardiac Surgery. Paris, France: European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; 1997.
Shimazu S, Shatney CH. Outcomes of trauma patients with no vital signs on hospital admission. J Trauma.1983;23:213-216.
Campbell JP, Maxey VA, Watson WA. Hawthorne effect. Ann Emerg Med.1995;26:590-594.