Murray CJ, Lopez AD, Jamison DT. The global burden of disease in 1990: summary results, sensitivity
analysis and future directions. Bull World Health Organ.1994;72:495-509.
World Health Organization. The World Health Organization Report 1997: Conquering
Suffering, Enriching Humanity. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1997.
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M, Heath Jr C, Doll R. Mortality from smoking worldwide. Br Med Bull.1996;52:12-21.
Peto R, Lopez AD. The future worldwide health effects of current smoking patterns: 3
million deaths per year in the 1990's, but over 10 million annually. In: Program and abstracts of the 7th World Conference on Tobacco
and Health; 1990; Perth, Australia.
Department of Disease Control of the Ministry of Health, Chinese Academy
of Preventive Medicine. The 1995 Annual Report on Disease Surveillance. Beijing, China: Hua Xia Publishing House; 1997.
Samet J, Taylor C, Becker K, Yach D. Research in support of tobacco control: needs to study both country
specific actions and global ones. BMJ.1998;316:321.
Yang G-H, Stroup DF, Thacker SB. National public health surveillance in China: implications for public
health in China and the United States. Biomed Enrivon Sci.1997;10:1-13.
Yang G-H, Zhen X, Zhen G. Selection of DSP points in the second stage and their presentation. J Chin Epidemiol.1992;13:79-81.
World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Conduct of Tobacco Smoking Surveys
for the General Population. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1983. Document WHO/SMO/83.4.
Weng X, Hong Z, Chen D. Smoking prevalence in Chinese aged 15 and above. Chin Med J.1987;100:886-892.
Niu SR, Guan N, Tian B.
et al. The survey of smoking pattern on 30,000 students. J Health Study.1995;24:15-18.
School-based tobacco-use prevention in People's Republic of China,
May 1989-January 1990. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.1993;42:370-371, 377.
Wang CF. Results analysis of smoking on teachers of 6 middle schools in LuWang
District, Shanghai. J Chin School Health.1995;16:248-249.
Zhu BP, Liu M, Shelton D, Liu S, Giovino GA. Cigarette smoking and its risk factors among elementary school students
in Beijing. Am J Public Health.1996;86:368-375.
Myhre SL, Li VC, Guan JH, Wang ZJ. Cancer knowledge and perceptions among Chinese factory workers: implications
for cancer control and prevention. Cancer Detect Prev.1996;20:223-233.
Zhu BP, Liu M, Wang SQ.
et al. Cigarette smoking among junior high students in Beijing, China, 1988. Int J Epidemiol.1992;21:854-861.
School-based tobacco use prevention: People's Republic of China, May
1989-January 1990. JAMA.1993;269:2972.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. Tobacco Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1986.
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M, Heath Jr C. Mortality From Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000:
Indirect Estimates From National Vital Statistics. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 1994.
Yuan JM, Ross RK, Wang XL, Gao YT, Henderson BE, Yu MC. Morbidity and mortality in relation to cigarette smoking in Shanghai,
Lam TH, He Y, Li LS, He SF, Liang BQ. Mortality attributable to cigarette smoking in China. JAMA.1997;278:1505-1508.
Chen Z-M, Xu Z, Collins R, Li W-X, Peto R. Early health effects of the emerging tobacco epidemic in China. JAMA.1997;278:1500-1504.
Liu B-Q, Peto R, Chen Z-M.
et al. Emerging tobacco hazards in China: retrospective proportional mortality
study of one million deaths. BMJ.1998;317:1411-1422.
Niu S-R, Yang G-H, Chen Z-M.
et al. Emerging tobacco hazards in China: early mortality results from a prospective
Li X, Fang X, Stanton B. Cigarette smoking among Chinese adolescents and its association with
demographic characteristics, social activities, and problem behaviors. Subst Use Misuse.1996;31:545-563.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years
of Progress. a report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1989.
Wu-Williams AH, Dai XD, Blot W.
et al. Lung cancer among women in Northeast China. Br J Cancer.1990;62:982-987.