Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Whaley, Schneider Chafen, Pinkard, Bravata, Sood.
Drafting of the manuscript: Whaley, Schneider Chafen, Pinkard, Kellerman, Bravata, Sood.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Whaley, Schneider Chafen, Pinkard, Sood.
Obtained funding: Sood.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Sood.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Mr Whaley, Drs Schneider Chafen, Kellerman, and Bravata, and Ms Pinkard reported that they are employees of Castlight Health. Dr Sood reported that he is a paid advisor for Castlight Health. Dr Kocher reported that he is on the board of directors of Castlight Health.
Funding/Support: Dr Sood was supported by grant 1R01AG043850-01 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of Funders/Sponsors: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: The results of this study were presented at the Academy of Health, June 2014, in San Diego, California, and at the American Society of Health Economists, June 22-25, 2014, in Los Angeles, California.
Additional Information: Deidentified data will be made available to researchers in a HIPPA-compliant manner upon request for the purposes of replication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Timothy Brown, PhD (University of California, Berkeley), Karen Eggleston, PhD (Stanford University), Vicki Fung, PhD (Mongan Institute for Health Policy), Alan Garber, MD, PhD (Harvard University), Robert Huckman, PhD (Harvard University), Anupam Jena, MD, PhD (Harvard University), Mark McClellan, MD, PhD (Brookings Institution), Ateev Mehrotra, MD (Harvard University), Mary Reed, DrPh (Kaiser Permanente Division of Research), and James Robinson, PhD (University of California, Berkeley) for thoughtful reviews of an earlier draft of the manuscript; Eugenia Bisignani (Castlight Health) for data assistance, and Allison Pitt (Stanford University) and Zachary Wagner-Rubin (University of California, Berkeley) for excellent research assistance. Huckman and McClellan are paid members of the Castlight Health Inc. No others were compensated for their contributions.