Published Online: September 30, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.13204.
Study concept and design: Amrein, Riedl, Stojakovic, Berghold, Pieber, Dobnig.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Amrein, Schnedl, Riedl, Christopher, Berghold, Pieber, Dobnig.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Riedl, Berghold.
Obtained funding: Amrein, Pieber, Dobnig.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Amrein, Schnedl, Holl, Pachler, Urbanic Purkart, Waltensdorfer, Münch, Warnkross, Bisping, Stojakovic, Toller, Smolle, Pieber, Dobnig.
Study supervision: Amrein, Schnedl, Warnkross, Pieber, Dobnig.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Amrein reports receiving lecture fees from Fresenius Kabi. Dr Christopher reports receiving honoraria from the International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Dr Pachler reports receiving personal fees from Orion Pharma. Dr Stojakovic reports receiving personal fees from Fresenius Kabi. Dr Dobnig reports receiving lecture fees from Fresenius Kabi. No other disclosures were reported.
Funder/Sponsor: The study was supported by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), a research grant including provision of study medication from Fresenius Kabi (Germany), and the Austrian National Bank (Jubiläumsfonds, Project Nr. 14143).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: Selected data of this manuscript were presented at the ICE/ENDO 2014 in Chicago (June 21-24), the 36th ESPEN Congress on Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism in Geneva (September 6-9, 2014), and at LIVES 2014, the 27th ESICM Annual Congress in Barcelona 2014.
Additional Contributions: We thank the staff of the participating intensive care units, patients, relatives, family physicians, health care workers in other institutions, and caregivers who made this trial possible. We thank Andrea Grisold, MD, and Thomas Valentin, MD (both from Medical University of Graz, Austria), for validating blood culture results. We also thank Johannes Plank, MD, Harald Sourij, MD, Robert Krause, MD (all from Medical University of Graz, Austria), Steven Amrein, MD (Privatklinik der Kreuzschwestern, Graz, Austria), and Chris Wrighton for inspiring suggestions; Bettina Fürpass, Gerit Wünsch, PhD, Andreas Meinitzer, PhD, Hans Peter Dimai, MD (all Medical University of Graz, Austria), and Marianne Schmid, MD (Steiermärkische Gebietskrankenkasse, Graz, Austria), provided invaluable support for the final analyses of this trial. None of these individuals received financial compensation for their contribution to this study.
Correction: This article was corrected online October 14, 2014, for typographical errors.