In this issue of JAMA, Ebrahim et al4 report their findings based on a rigorous search of previously published reanalyses of RCTs. Their first surprising and discomforting finding was just how infrequently data reanalysis has occurred in medical research. Searching the literature from 1966 to present, the authors found only 37 reports that met their criteria as an RCT reanalysis. Of these few reanalyses performed, the majority (84%) had overlapping authors from the original report. Thus, reanalyses are not only rare, but the majority that were reported were not fully independent of the original research group. Despite this overlap, Ebrahim et al report that about half of the reanalyses differed in statistical or analytic approaches, a third differed in the definitions or measurements of outcomes, and most important, a third led to interpretations and conclusions different than those in the original article. While the definition of what constituted different trial analyses, study end points, findings, and interpretations is subjective, the authors’ general conclusions were consistent with an emerging literature that indicates RCT reanalysis can yield different results and conclusions from those originally published.