Study concept and design: Johnston, Kanters, Siemieniuk, Ball, Busse, Thorlund, Mills.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Johnston, Kanters, Bandayrel, Wu, Naji, Siemieniuk, Busse, Thorlund, Guyatt, Jansen, Mills.
Drafting of the manuscript: Johnston, Kanters, Bandayrel, Naji, Ball, Thorlund, Mills.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Johnston, Kanters, Wu, Siemieniuk, Busse, Thorlund, Guyatt, Jansen, Mills.
Statistical analysis: Johnston, Kanters, Thorlund, Mills.
Obtained funding: Johnston, Ball, Busse, Thorlund, Mills.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Johnston, Bandayrel, Wu, Naji, Mills.
Study supervision: Johnston, Thorlund, Guyatt, Mills.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by a Canadian Institute of Health research knowledge synthesis grant 201104 via the Public Health Agency of Canada. Dr Busse holds a Canadian Institute of Health Research new investigator award. Dr Mills holds a Canada Research Chair in global health.
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: The funding sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Christopher Gardner, PhD (Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California), for his guidance and review of the manuscript. Dr Gardner did not receive any financial compensation for his guidance and review of the manuscript.