Study concept and design: Gialdini, Bhave, Iadecola, Kamel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Gialdini, Nearing, Bhave, Bonuccelli, Healey, Kamel.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gialdini, Nearing, Iadecola.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Gialdini, Bhave, Bonuccelli, Healey, Kamel.
Statistical analysis: Bhave, Kamel.
Obtained funding: Iadecola, Kamel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nearing, Bhave, Kamel.
Study supervision: Gialdini, Bonuccelli, Iadecola, Kamel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Healey reported receiving research grants from Medtronic, St Jude Medical, Boston Scientific, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and Bristol-Myers Squibb; and serving on advisory boards for Boehringer-Ingelheim and Bayer. Dr Kamel reported serving on a medical advisory board and a speakers bureau for Genentech. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant K23NS082367 (awarded to Dr Kamel) from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, grant MC7450 (Dr Healey) from the Heart and Stroke Foundation, Ontario Provincial Office, and funding from the Feil Family Foundation (Dr Gialdini) and the Michael Goldberg Stroke Research Fund (Dr Kamel).
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.