Study concept and design: Saitz, Palfai, Cheng, Alford, Bernstein, Meli, Samet.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Saitz, Palfai, Cheng, Alford, Bernstein, Lloyd-Travaglini, Meli, Chaisson, Samet.
Drafting of the manuscript: Saitz, Palfai.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Saitz, Palfai, Cheng, Alford, Bernstein, Lloyd-Travaglini, Meli, Chaisson, Samet.
Statistical analysis: Saitz, Cheng, Bernstein, Lloyd-Travaglini.
Obtained funding: Saitz, Bernstein, Meli, Samet.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Saitz, Alford, Bernstein, Meli, Chaisson.
Study supervision: Saitz, Palfai, Alford, Meli, Chaisson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Saitz reported having received grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), having consulted as editor to BMJ, having received speaking fees from academic and governmental institutions and professional societies often concerning the evidence related to addressing substance use in health settings, and having consulted as an expert witness on alcohol and drug topics. Dr Cheng reported having served on data monitoring committees for Johnson & Johnson/Janssen and having received grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Ms Lloyd-Travaglini reported having received grants from NIH. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The ASPIRE study was funded by an award from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA025068), a portion of which was funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, SAMHSA. BNI counselors, training, and supervision were supported by a contract from the SAMHSA (TI018311) to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, which contracted with Boston Medical Center to deliver BNI services (INTF2330M04W76112076). The study was also supported in part by the National Center for Research Resources (UL1RR025771).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank both Jacqueline Savetsky German, MPH, Boston Medical Center, and Lucero Leon-Chi, BS, Boston University School of Public Health, for their assistance with project management, manuscript preparation, and editorial support. Their work was supported by the ASPIRE grant.