Study concept and design: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Krupski, Dunn, Ries, Donovan, Joesch.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Dunn, Ries, Atkins.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Krupski, Ries, Donovan, West, Maynard, Atkins, Graves, Joesch, Zarkin.
Statistical analysis: West, Maynard, Atkins, Graves, Joesch, Zarkin.
Obtained funding: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Krupski, Dunn, Ries, Donovan, Joesch, Zarkin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Krupski.
Study supervision: Roy-Byrne, Bumgardner, Dunn, Ries.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Roy-Byrne reported receiving financial support as the editor in chief of Depression and Anxiety, Journal Watch Psychiatry, and UpToDate Psychiatry and receiving stock options for consultation to Valant Medical Solutions (behavioral health electronic medical record company), outside the submitted work. Dr Ries reported receiving financial support from Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Alkermes, and Reckitt Benckiser Pharamaceutical Inc, outside the submitted work. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse grant R01 DA026014 (Dr Roy-Byrne).
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute on Drug Abuse had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or the National Institutes of Health.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the participation and support of many people without whom this study could never have been completed. These include the patients and the administrative and clinical staff, including medical directors, of the primary care clinics that participated in the study; the interventionists receiving grant support who spent time to train and gain proficiency in the motivational interviewing-enhanced brief intervention and then to provide study interventions to participating clinic patients; and the expert research staff employed by the grant for study coordination, data collection resulting in more than 87% follow-up participation, and coding of intervention recordings. We also gratefully acknowledge the expert oversight of our data and safety monitoring board (Katharine A. Bradley, MD, MPH [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington]; John M. Roll, PhD [Professor and Senior Vice Chancellor, Washington State University, Spokane]; and Andrew J. Saxon, MD [Director, Center of Excellence in Substance Abuse Treatment and Education, VA Puget Sound Health Care System; Professor, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle]), and the support of the late Richard A. Denisco, MD, MPH, our program official at the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr Denisco and the members of the data and safety monitoring board did not receive compensation from this grant.