Study concept and design: MacPherson, Lalloo, Makombe, Desmond, Squire, Corbett.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: MacPherson, Lalloo, Webb, Maheswaran, Choko, Butterworth, van Oosterhout, Thindwa, Hayes, Corbett.
Drafting of the manuscript: MacPherson, Lalloo, Maheswaran.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: MacPherson, Lalloo, Webb, Maheswaran, Choko, Makombe, Butterworth, van Oosterhout, Desmond, Thindwa, Squire, Hayes, Corbett.
Statistical analysis: MacPherson, Webb, Maheswaran, Choko, Hayes.
Obtained funding: MacPherson, Corbett.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Maheswaran, Makombe, Butterworth, van Oosterhout, Desmond, Thindwa, Corbett.
Study supervision: Lalloo, Squire, Corbett.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Squire reported having received grants from the US Agency for International Development and Norwegian Heart and Lung Patient Organisation. Dr Hayes reported having received grant funding for his research group from the Medical Research Council. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by grants from the Wellcome Trust (WT089673, P.M. and WT097973, H.M.) and a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Clinical Science (WT091769, E.L.C.).
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: Data on baseline characteristics, ART initiation, uptake of HIV self-testing, and HIV self-testing results were presented in an abstract (No. 95LB) at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Atlanta, Georgia; March 5, 2013.
Additional Contributions: We thank the community members who participated in the study and the patients and staff at Ndirande Health Centre, Chilomoni Health Centre, and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital Blantyre. Blantyre District Health Office and the HIV Department of the Ministry of Health of Malawi provided invaluable technical support. Participants, patients, routine facility staff, and offices were not compensated for their contributions.