At the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic 30 years ago, the main methods for prevention were clean needles and condoms. Even though these available methods would work, their success was completely dependent on human behavior. However, over the past decade, biomedical prevention of HIV has come of age, in the wake of the extraordinary success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment of the HIV-infected person. In quick succession, effective approaches for prevention were developed and implemented, including prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission through birth and breastfeeding, medical male circumcision, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal microbicides, and prevention of transmission to uninfected partners of an HIV-infected person with effective ART.
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