The World in Medicine |

Civil War Stress

Rebecca Voelker
JAMA. 1999;281(6):503. doi:10.1001/jama.281.6.503.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Imagine the wartime image of an infant nailed to a barn with a pitchfork or a family member being decapitated. These violent images have fueled a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rate that is dozens of times higher among survivors of Bosnia's civil war than among people who have not been exposed to such atrocities.

In this month's Journal of Traumatic Stress, researchers from Lund University in Malmo, Sweden, report on 206 Bosnian refugees who fled to Sweden in the early 1990s while civil war raged in their homeland. The researchers measured PTSD rates by asking the refugees and 387 Swedish control subjects to rate on a scale of 1 to 7 the extent to which they experienced a number of symptoms in the previous week. The symptoms included sleeping problems, nightmares, depression, startle reactions, a tendency toward isolation, irritability, emotional difficulty, bodily tension, and fear of places or situations resembling the traumatic event.


wars ; stress

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles