Study concept and design: Hsieh, Rodgers, Powell, Tisdale.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hsieh, Fitzhugh, Weitzel, Link, Coles, Zhao, Powell, Tisdale.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hsieh, Fitzhugh, Weitzel, Link, Zhao, Tisdale.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hsieh, Fitzhugh, Weitzel, Coles, Zhao, Rodgers, Powell, Tisdale.
Statistical analysis: Hsieh, Weitzel, Zhao.
Obtained funding: Rodgers, Tisdale.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Fitzhugh, Weitzel, Link, Coles, Rodgers, Tisdale.
Study supervision: Link, Rodgers, Tisdale.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work is supported by the intramural research program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Terri Wakefield, MS, at NIH for protocol support; Rosario Di Maggio, MD, of Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico “Paolo Giaccone,” Palermo, Italy, for data collection; the clinical staff, the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radiation Oncology, and the liver disease team at the NIH Clinical Center for patient care. No one received compensation for their role in the study.