Context.— Although the long-term health benefits of good glycemic control in patients
with diabetes are well documented, shorter-term quality of life (QOL) and
economic savings generally have been reported to be minimal or absent.
Objective.— To examine short-term outcomes of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes
Design.— Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial.
Setting.— Sixty-two sites in the United States.
Participants.— A total of 569 male and female volunteers with type 2 DM.
Intervention.— After a 3-week, single-blind placebo-washout period, participants were
randomized to diet and titration with either 5 to 20 mg of glipizide gastrointestinal
therapeutic system (GITS) (n=377) or placebo (n=192) for 12 weeks.
Main Outcome Measures.— Change from baseline in glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and symptom distress, QOL, and health economic indicators
by questionnaires and diaries.
Results.— After 12 weeks, mean (±SE) HbA1c and fasting blood
glucose levels decreased with active therapy (glipizide GITS) vs placebo (7.5%±0.1%
vs 9.3%±0.1% and 7.0±0.1 mmol/L [126±2 mg/dL] vs 9.3±0.2
mmol/L [168±4 mg/dL], respectively; P<.001).
Quality-of-life treatment differences (SD units) for symptom distress (+0.59; P<.001), general perceived health (+0.36; P=.004), cognitive functioning (+0.34; P=.005),
and the overall visual analog scale (VAS) (+0.24; P=.04)
were significantly more favorable for active therapy. Subscales of acuity
(+0.38; P=.002), VAS emotional health (+0.35; P =.003), general health (+0.27; P
=.01), sleep (+0.26; P =.04), depression (+0.25; P =.05), disorientation and detachment (+0.23; P =.05), and vitality (+0.22; P =.04) were
most affected. Favorable health economic outcomes for glipizide GITS included
higher retained employment (97% vs 85%; P<.001),
greater productive capacity (99% vs 87%; P<.001),
less absenteeism (losses=$24 vs $115 per worker per month; P <.001), fewer bed-days (losses=$1539 vs $1843 per 1000 person-days; P=.05), and fewer restricted-activity days (losses=$2660
vs $4275 per 1000 person-days; P=.01).
Conclusions.— Improved glycemic control of type 2 DM is associated with substantial
short-term symptomatic, QOL, and health economic benefits.